Use the G p or the G c command to edit group parameters of a group. G p presents you with a Lisp-based interface, G c presents you with a Customize-like interface. The latter helps avoid silly Lisp errors. You might also be interested in reading about topic parameters see Topic Parameters.
Additionally, you can set group parameters via the gnus-parameters variable, see below. All the parameters have this form except local variable specs, which are not dotted pairs, but proper lists. Some parameters have correspondent customizable variables, each of which is an alist of regexps and values. Using to-address will actually work whether the group is foreign or not.
This is a real newsgroup, but the server has gotten the articles from a mail-to-news gateway. Posting directly to this group is therefore impossible—you have to send mail to the mailing list address instead. If you do an a command in a mail group and you have neither a to-list group parameter nor a to-address group parameter, then a to-list group parameter will be added automatically upon sending the message if gnus-add-to-list is set to t. If this variable is set, gnus-mailing-list-mode is turned on when entering summary buffer.
If this parameter is set to t , Gnus will consider the to-address and to-list parameters for this group as addresses of mailing lists you are subscribed to. Giving Gnus this information is only a first step in getting it to generate correct Mail-Followup-To headers for your posts to these lists.
The second step is to put the following in your. If the group parameter list has the element visible. This parameter cannot be set via gnus-parameters. See gnus-permanently-visible-groups as an alternative. Elements like broken-reply-to. That is broken behavior. So there! Elements like to-group. If you have newsgroup. If gcc-self. It should be a group name. The gcc-self value may also be a list of strings and t , e.
The gcc-self parameter takes precedence over any default Gcc rules as described later see Archived Messages , with the exception for messages to resend. Caveat : Adding gcc-self. If the group parameter has an element that looks like auto-expire. For an alternative approach, see Expiring Mail. If the group parameter has an element that looks like total-expire. Unread, ticked and dormant articles are not eligible for expiry.
If the group parameter has an element that looks like expiry-wait. The value can be either a number of days not necessarily an integer , or one of the symbols never or immediate. Elements that look like score-file. All interactive score entries will be put into this file.
Elements that look like adapt-file. All adaptive score entries will be put into this file. When unsubscribing from a mailing list you should never send the unsubscription notice to the mailing list itself. This parameter allows you to put the admin address somewhere convenient. Elements that look like display. MODE say which articles to display on entering the group.
Valid values are:. Display the last integer articles in the group. This is the same as entering the group with C-u integer. The available operators are not , and and or. Predicates include tick , unsend , undownload , unread , dormant , expire , reply , killed , bookmark , score , save , cache , forward , and unseen. The display parameter works by limiting the summary buffer to the subset specified.
Elements that look like comment. You can display comments in the group line see Group Line Specification. Elements that look like charset. Elements that look like ignored-charsets x-unknown iso will make iso and x-unknown ignored; that is, the default charset will be used for decoding articles.
You can store additional posting style information for this group here see Posting Styles. Style elements in this group parameter will take precedence over the ones found in gnus-posting-styles. For instance, if you want a funky name and signature in this group only, instead of hacking gnus-posting-styles , you could put something like this in the group parameters:. Posting styles in topic parameters apply to all groups in this topic. More precisely, the posting-style settings for a group result from the hierarchical merging of all posting-style entries in the parameters of this group and all the topics it belongs to.
If it is set, the value is used as the method for posting message instead of gnus-post-method. If it is set, and the setting of mail-sources includes a group mail source see Mail Sources , the value is a mail source for this group. An item like banner. Instead of regexp , you can also use the symbol signature which strips the last signature or any of the elements of the alist gnus-article-banner-alist.
This parameter contains a Sieve test that should match incoming mail that should be placed in this group. To generate tests for multiple email-addresses use a group parameter like sieve address "sender" "name one. When generating a sieve script see Sieve Commands Sieve code like the following is generated:. See Sieve Commands , for commands and variables that might be of interest in relation to the sieve parameter.
The Sieve language is described in RFC See Top in Emacs Sieve. If this parameter is set to t and nnmail-split-method is set to gnus-group-split , Gnus will match to-address , to-list , extra-aliases and split-regexp against the list split abbreviation. The split regexp is modified to match either a or a dot. See nnmail-split-abbrev-alist for the regular expression matching mailing-list headers. See Group Mail Splitting , for details on how to automatically split on group parameters.
If the agent has been enabled, you can set any of its parameters to control the behavior of the agent in individual groups. See Agent Parameters in Category Syntax. Most users will choose to set agent parameters in either an agent category or group topic to minimize the configuration effort. You can use the group parameters to set variables local to the group you are entering. Note that this feature sets the variable locally to the summary buffer if and only if variable has been bound as a variable.
Otherwise, only evaluating the form will take place. So, you may want to bind the variable in advance using defvar or other if the result of the form needs to be set to it. But some variables are evaluated in the article buffer, or in the message buffer of a reply or followup or otherwise newly created message.
As a workaround, it might help to add the variable in question to gnus-newsgroup-variables. See Various Summary Stuff. A use for this feature is to remove a mailing list identifier tag in the subject fields of articles. This can also be used as a group-specific hook function.
If you want to hear a beep when you enter a group, you could put something like dummy-variable ding in the parameters of that group. If dummy-variable has been bound see above , it will be set to the meaningless result of the ding form. For example, if the following is added to a group parameter.
Group parameters can be set via the gnus-parameters variable too. But some variables, such as visible , have no effect For this case see gnus-permanently-visible-groups as an alternative. For example:. So if you have two clauses that both match the group name, and both set, say display , the last setting will override the first.
Parameters that are strings will be subjected to regexp substitution, as the to-group example shows. By default, whether comparing the group name and one of those regexps specified in gnus-parameters is done in a case-sensitive manner or a case-insensitive manner depends on the value of case-fold-search at the time when the comparison is done.
FOO" total-expire. If you want to make those regexps always case-sensitive, set the value of the gnus-parameters-case-fold-search variable to nil. Otherwise, set it to t if you want to compare them always in a case-insensitive manner. You can define different sorting to different groups via gnus-parameters. In this example, the first group is the Debian daily news group gmane.
List all groups that have unread articles gnus-group-list-groups. If the numeric prefix is used, this command will list only groups of level ARG and lower. By default, it only lists groups of level five i. List all groups, whether they have unread articles or not gnus-group-list-all-groups.
By default, it lists groups of level seven or lower i. List all unread groups on a specific level gnus-group-list-level. If given a prefix, also list the groups with no unread articles. List all killed groups gnus-group-list-killed.
This could entail reading the active file from the server. List all unread, subscribed groups with names that match a regexp gnus-group-list-matching. List absolutely all groups in the active file s of the server s you are connected to gnus-group-list-active. This might very well take quite a while. Take the output with some grains of salt. List all groups that have names or descriptions that match a regexp gnus-group-description-apropos. Further limit groups within the current selection gnus-group-list-limit.
Groups that match the gnus-permanently-visible-groups regexp will always be shown, whether they have unread articles or not. You can also add the visible element to the group parameters in question to get the same effect. Groups that have just ticked articles in it are normally listed in the group buffer. If gnus-list-groups-with-ticked-articles is nil , these groups will be treated just like totally empty groups.
It is t by default. The C-c C-s gnus-group-sort-groups command sorts the group buffer according to the function s given by the gnus-group-sort-function variable. Available sorting functions include:. Sort by group score and then the group level.
See Group Score. In that case, the most significant sort key function must be the last one. Sort the group buffer alphabetically by group name gnus-group-sort-groups-by-alphabet. Sort the group buffer by the number of unread articles gnus-group-sort-groups-by-unread. Sort the group buffer by group score gnus-group-sort-groups-by-score. Sort the group buffer by group rank gnus-group-sort-groups-by-rank. Sort the group buffer alphabetically by back end name gnus-group-sort-groups-by-method.
Sort the group buffer alphabetically by real unprefixed group name gnus-group-sort-groups-by-real-name. When given a symbolic prefix see Symbolic Prefixes , all these commands will sort in reverse order. Sort the groups alphabetically by group name gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-alphabet. Sort the groups by the number of unread articles gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-unread. Sort the groups by group score gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-score.
Sort the groups by group rank gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-rank. Sort the groups alphabetically by back end name gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-method. Sort the groups alphabetically by real unprefixed group name gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-real-name. And finally, note that you can use C-k and C-y to manually move groups around.
Find new groups and process them gnus-group-find-new-groups. With 1 C-u , use the ask-server method to query the server for new groups. Run all expirable articles in the current group through the expiry process if any gnus-group-expire-articles. That is, delete all expirable articles in the group that have been around for a while. Run all expirable articles in all groups through the expiry process gnus-group-expire-all-groups.
You will be queried for a select method and a server name. Gnus will then attempt to contact this server and let you browse the groups there gnus-group-browse-foreign-server. A new buffer with a list of available groups will appear. This buffer will use the gnus-browse-mode. This buffer looks a bit well, a lot like a normal group buffer. Unsubscribe to the current group, or, as will be the case here, subscribe to it gnus-browse-unsubscribe-current-group. You can affect the way the new group is entered into the Group buffer using the variable gnus-browse-subscribe-newsgroup-method.
See see Subscription Methods for available options. This function will delete the current group gnus-browse-delete-group. Suspend Gnus gnus-group-suspend. Quit Gnus without saving the. The dribble file will be saved, though see Auto Save. Miss Lisa Cannifax, while sitting in English class, felt her feet go numbly heavy and herself fall into a hazy trance as the boy sitting behind her drew repeated lines with his pencil across the back of her plastic chair.
If you read lots and lots of groups, it might be convenient to group them hierarchically according to topics. You put your Emacs groups over here, your sex groups over there, and the rest what, two groups or so? You can even group the Emacs sex groups as a sub-topic to either the Emacs groups or the sex groups—or both!
Go wild! To get this fab functionality you simply turn on ooh! This is a toggling command. Go ahead, just try it. Yes, and now press l. Hot and bothered? If you want this permanently enabled, you should add that minor mode to the hook for the group mode.
When the topic minor mode is turned on, a new T submap will be available. In addition, a few of the standard keys change their definitions slightly. In general, the following kinds of operations are possible on topics. First of all, you want to create topics. Secondly, you want to put groups in topics and to move them around until you have an order you like.
You might want to hide a topic including its subtopics and groups, to get a better overview of the other groups. The following two keys can be used to move groups and topics around. They work like the well-known cut and paste. C-k is like cut and C-y is like paste. Of course, this being Emacs, we use the terms kill and yank rather than cut and paste.
Kill a group or topic gnus-topic-kill-group. All groups in the topic will be removed along with the topic. Yank the previously killed group or topic gnus-topic-yank-group. Note that all topics will be yanked before all groups. So, to move a topic to the beginning of the list of topics, just hit C-k on it. Like I said—E-Z. You can use C-k and C-y on groups as well as on topics. So you can move topics around as well as groups.
After setting up the topics the way you like them, you might wish to hide a topic, or to show it again. Either select a group or fold a topic gnus-topic-select-group. When done on a topic line, the topic will be folded if it was visible or unfolded if it was folded already. In addition, if you give a numerical prefix, group on that level and lower will be displayed. Move the current group to some other topic gnus-topic-move-group. Copy the current group to some other topic gnus-topic-copy-group.
Hide the current topic gnus-topic-hide-topic. If given a prefix, hide the topic permanently. Show the current topic gnus-topic-show-topic. If given a prefix, show the topic permanently. Remove a group from the current topic gnus-topic-remove-group. This command is mainly useful if you have the same group in several topics and wish to remove it from one of the topics. You may also remove a group from all topics, but in that case, Gnus will add it to the root topic the next time you start Gnus.
Move all groups that match some regular expression to a topic gnus-topic-move-matching. Copy all groups that match some regular expression to a topic gnus-topic-copy-matching. Mark all groups in the current topic with the process mark gnus-topic-mark-topic. This command works recursively on sub-topics unless given a prefix. Remove the process mark from all groups in the current topic gnus-topic-unmark-topic. Run all expirable articles in the current group or topic through the expiry process if any gnus-topic-expire-articles.
List all groups that Gnus knows about in a topics-ified way gnus-topic-list-active. Edit the topic parameters gnus-topic-edit-parameters. See Topic Parameters. The previous section told you how to tell Gnus which topics to display. This section explains how to tell Gnus what to display about each topic. The topic lines themselves are created according to the gnus-topic-line-format variable see Formatting Variables. Valid elements are:.
Each sub-topic and the groups in the sub-topics will be indented with gnus-topic-indent-level times the topic level number of spaces. The default is 2. The gnus-topic-display-empty-topics says whether to display even topics that have no unread articles in them. Sort the current topic alphabetically by group name gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-alphabet.
Sort the current topic by the number of unread articles gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-unread. Sort the current topic by group score gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-score. Sort the current topic by group rank gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-rank. Sort the current topic alphabetically by back end name gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-method.
Sort the current topic alphabetically by server name gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-server. Sort the current topic according to the function s given by the gnus-group-sort-function variable gnus-topic-sort-groups. When given a prefix argument, all these commands will sort in reverse order.
See Sorting Groups , for more information about group sorting. There is always just one 1 top-level topic. This topology can be expressed as follows:. This is in fact how the variable gnus-topic-topology would look for the display above. That variable is saved in the. Since this variable is read from the. This topology shows what topics are sub-topics of what topics right , and which topics are visible.
Two settings are currently allowed— visible and invisible. All groups in a topic will inherit group parameters from the parent and ancestor topic parameters. All valid group parameters are valid topic parameters see Group Parameters. When the agent is enabled, all agent parameters See Agent Parameters in Category Syntax are also valid topic parameters. When subscribing new groups by topic see Subscription Methods , the subscribe topic parameter says what groups go in what topic.
Its value should be a regexp to match the groups that should go in that topic. When subscribing new groups by topic see the subscribe parameter , the group will be subscribed with the level specified in the subscribe-level instead of gnus-level-default-subscribed.
Group parameters of course override topic parameters, and topic parameters in sub-topics override topic parameters in super-topics. You know. Normal inheritance rules. Rules is here a noun, not a verb, although you may feel free to disagree with me here. SCORE home score file. Well, yes. But there are some problems, especially with the total-expiry parameter. Say you have a mail group in two topics; one with total-expiry and one without. What happens when you do M-x gnus-expire-all-expirable-groups?
Gnus has no way of telling which one of these topics you mean to expire articles from, so anything may happen. In fact, I hereby declare that it is undefined what happens. You just have to be careful if you do stuff like that. There are some news servers that provide groups of which the names are expressed with their native languages in the world.
For instance, in a certain news server there are some newsgroups of which the names are spelled in Chinese, where people are talking in Chinese. You can, of course, subscribe to such news groups using Gnus. Currently Gnus supports non- ASCII group names not only with the nntp back end but also with the nnml back end and the nnrss back end.
Every such group name is encoded by a certain charset in the server side in an NNTP server its administrator determines the charset, but for groups in the other back ends it is determined by you. Gnus has to display the decoded ones for you in the group buffer and the article buffer, and needs to use the encoded ones when communicating with servers. The following two variables are just the ones for telling Gnus what charset should be used for each group:.
An alist of select methods and charsets. The default value is nil. The names of groups in the server specified by that select method are all supposed to use the corresponding charset. Charsets specified for groups with this variable are preferred to the ones specified for the same groups with the gnus-group-name-charset-group-alist variable see below. In that case, you can truncate it into nntp "gmane" in this variable. That is, it is enough to contain only the back end name and the server name.
An alist of regexp of group name and the charset for group names. Note that this variable is ignored if the match is made with gnus-group-name-charset-method-alist. Those two variables are used also to determine the charset for encoding and decoding non- ASCII group names that are in the back ends other than nntp.
It means that it is you who determine it. If you do nothing, the charset used for group names in those back ends will all be utf-8 because of the last element of gnus-group-name-charset-group-alist. The value of this variable should be a coding system or nil.
The default is nil in Emacs. The nnml back end, the nnrss back end, the agent, and the cache use non- ASCII group names in those files and directories. This variable overrides the value of file-name-coding-system which specifies the coding system used when encoding and decoding those file names and directory names.
Emacs uses the value of default-file-name-coding-system if file-name-coding-system is nil or it is bound to the value of nnmail-pathname-coding-system which is nil. Normally the value of default-file-name-coding-system is initialized according to the locale, so you will need to do nothing if the value is suitable to encode and decode non- ASCII group names. The value of this variable or default-file-name-coding-system does not necessarily need to be the same value that is determined by gnus-group-name-charset-method-alist and gnus-group-name-charset-group-alist.
If default-file-name-coding-system or this variable is initialized by default to iso-latinunix for example, although you want to subscribe to the groups spelled in Chinese, that is the most typical case where you have to customize nnmail-pathname-coding-system. The utfunix coding system is a good candidate for it.
Otherwise, you may change the locale in your system so that default-file-name-coding-system or this variable may be initialized to an appropriate value. Note that when you copy or move articles from a non- ASCII group to another group, the charset used to encode and decode group names should be the same in both groups.
Otherwise the Newsgroups header will be displayed incorrectly in the article buffer. The key v is reserved for users. You can bind it to some command or better use it as a prefix key. Enter the server buffer gnus-group-enter-server-mode. Start composing a message a news by default gnus-group-post-news. If given a prefix, post to the group under the point.
If the prefix is 1, prompt for a group to post to. Contrary to what the name of this function suggests, the prepared article might be a mail instead of a news, if a mail group is specified with the prefix argument. See Composing Messages. Mail a message somewhere gnus-group-mail. If given a prefix, use the posting style of the group under the point. If the prefix is 1, prompt for a group name to find the posting style.
Start composing a news gnus-group-news. If the prefix is 1, prompt for group to post to. This function actually prepares a news even when using mail groups. The corresponding back end must have a request-post method for this to work though. Compact the group under point gnus-group-compact-group. Currently implemented only in nnml see Mail Spool. This removes gaps between article numbers, hence getting a correct total article count. It may be used to modify the buffer in some strange, unnatural way.
It may be used to move point around, for instance. Groups matching this regexp will always be listed in the group buffer, whether they are empty or not. Check the server s for new articles. If the numerical prefix is used, this command will check only groups of level arg and lower gnus-group-get-new-news.
If given a non-numerical prefix, this command will force a total re-reading of the active file s from the back end s. Check whether new articles have arrived in the current group gnus-group-get-new-news-this-group. Restart Gnus gnus-group-restart. This saves the.
Describe the current group gnus-group-describe-group. If given a prefix, force Gnus to re-read the description from the server. Describe all groups gnus-group-describe-all-groups. If given a prefix, force Gnus to re-read the description file from the server. It can be convenient to let Gnus keep track of when you last read a group. To set the ball rolling, you should add gnus-group-set-timestamp to gnus-select-group-hook :. As you can see, the date is displayed in compact ISO format.
This may be a bit too much, so to just display the date, you could say something like:. If you would like greater control of the time format, you can use a user-defined format spec. Something like the following should do the trick:. To see what variables are dynamically bound like gnus-tmp-group , you have to look at the source code.
Save the. If given a prefix, force saving the file s whether Gnus thinks it is necessary or not. Sieve is a server-side mail filtering language. In Gnus you can use the sieve group parameter see Group Parameters to specify sieve rules that should apply to each group. Gnus provides two commands to translate all these group parameters into a proper Sieve script that can be transferred to the server somehow.
The Sieve code that Gnus generate is placed between two delimiters, gnus-sieve-region-start and gnus-sieve-region-end , so you may write additional Sieve code outside these delimiters that will not be removed the next time you regenerate the Sieve script.
The variable gnus-sieve-crosspost controls how the Sieve script is generated. If it is non- nil the default articles is placed in all groups that have matching rules, otherwise the article is only placed in the group with the first matching rule. When gnus-sieve-crosspost is non- nil , it looks the same except that the line containing the call to stop is removed.
Regenerate a Sieve script from the sieve group parameters and put you into the gnus-sieve-file without saving it. Regenerates the Gnus managed part of gnus-sieve-file using the sieve group parameters, save the file and upload it to the server using the sieveshell program. A line for each article is displayed in the summary buffer. You can move around, read articles, post articles and reply to articles. The most common way to a summary buffer is to select a group from the group buffer see Selecting a Group.
Gnus will use the value of the gnus-extract-address-components variable as a function for getting the name and address parts of a From header. Two pre-defined functions exist: gnus-extract-address-components , which is the default, quite fast, and too simplistic solution; and mail-extract-address-components , which works very nicely, but is slower. If this is unacceptable to you, use the other function instead:.
This string will be used with those specs that require it. The default is "". You can change the format of the lines in the summary buffer by changing the gnus-summary-line-format variable. It works along the same lines as a normal format string, with some extensions see Formatting Variables. There should always be a colon or a point position marker on the line; the cursor always moves to the point position marker or the colon after performing an operation.
Just write a new function gnus-goto-colon which does whatever you like with the cursor. The following format specification characters and extended format specification s are understood:. Subject string. List identifiers stripped, gnus-list-identifiers. See Article Hiding. Subject if the article is the root of the thread or the previous article had a different subject, gnus-summary-same-subject otherwise.
The name from the From header. This differs from the n spec in that it uses the function designated by the gnus-extract-address-components variable, which is slower, but may be more thorough. The address from the From header. This works the same way as the a spec. Number of characters in the article. This specifier is not supported in some methods like nnfolder.
Indentation based on thread level see Customizing Threading. A complex trn-style thread tree, showing response-connecting trace lines. A thread could be drawn like this:. You can customize the appearance with the following options. Note that it is possible to make the thread display look really neat by replacing the default ASCII characters with graphic line-drawing glyphs.
Used for the root of a thread. If nil , use subject instead. Used for the false root of a thread see Loose Threads. Used for a thread with just one message. This misleadingly named specifier is the secondary mark. This mark will say whether the article has been replied to, has been cached, or has been saved.
See Other Marks. If the difference between gnus-summary-default-score and the score is less than gnus-summary-zcore-fuzz , this spec will not be used. Number of articles in the current sub-thread. Using this spec will slow down summary buffer generation somewhat.
Age sensitive date format. Various date format is defined in gnus-user-date-format-alist. The function will be passed the current header as argument. The function should return a string, which will be inserted into the summary just like information from any other summary specifier. There can only be one such area. This means that it is invalid to have these specs after a variable-length spec. Well, you might not be arrested, but your summary buffer will look strange, which is bad enough. The smart choice is to have these specs as far to the left as possible.
But I digress. To display the information in the To or Newsgroups headers instead, you need to decide three things: What information to gather; where to display it; and when to display it. This will result in Gnus trying to obtain these three headers, and storing it in header structures for later easy retrieval.
To distinguish regular articles from those where the From field has been swapped, a string is prefixed to the To or Newsgroups header in the summary line. A related variable is nnmail-extra-headers , which controls when to include extra headers when generating overview NOV files. A note for news server administrators, or for users who wish to try to convince their news server administrator to provide some additional support:.
The above is mostly useful for mail groups, where you have control over the NOV files that are created. However, if you can persuade your nntp admin to add in the usual implementation, notably INN :. You can also change the format of the summary mode bar see Mode Line Formatting. Set gnus-summary-mode-line-format to whatever you like. Shortish group name. This hook is run after selecting an article. It is meant to be used for highlighting the article in some way.
It is not run if gnus-visual is nil. This hook is called when a summary line is changed. This is the face or font as some people call it used to highlight the current article in the summary buffer. Summary lines are highlighted according to this variable, which is a list where the elements are of the format form.
If you would, for instance, like ticked articles to be italic and high-scored articles to be bold, you could set this variable to something like. As you may have guessed, if form returns a non- nil value, face will be applied to the line. Go to the next summary line of an unread article gnus-summary-next-unread-subject. Go to the previous summary line of an unread article gnus-summary-prev-unread-subject. Ask for an article number and then go to the summary line of that article without displaying the article gnus-summary-goto-subject.
If Gnus asks you to press a key to confirm going to the next group, you can use the C-n and C-p keys to move around the group buffer, searching for the next group to read without actually returning to the group buffer. If you issue one of the movement commands like n and there are no more unread articles after the current one, Gnus will offer to go to the next group. If this variable is t and the next group is empty, Gnus will exit summary mode and return to the group buffer.
If this variable is neither t nor nil , Gnus will select the next group with unread articles. As a special case, if this variable is quietly , Gnus will select the next group without asking for confirmation. If this variable is almost-quietly , the same will happen only if you are located on the last article in the group. Finally, if this variable is slightly-quietly , the Z n command will go to the next group without confirmation. If non- nil , all the movement commands will try to go to the next article with the same subject as the current.
Same here might mean roughly equal. See gnus-summary-gather-subject-limit for details see Customizing Threading. If there are no more articles with the same subject, go to the first unread article. Instead, they will choose the current article.
If non- nil , Gnus will keep the point in the summary buffer centered at all times. This makes things quite tidy, but if you have a slow network connection, or simply do not like this un-Emacsism, you can set this variable to nil to get the normal Emacs scrolling action. This will also inhibit horizontal re-centering of the summary buffer, which might make it more inconvenient to read extremely long threads. This variable can also be a number. In that case, center the window at the given number of lines from the top.
None of the following movement commands understand the numeric prefix, and they all select and display an article. If you want to fetch new articles or redisplay the group, see Exiting the Summary Buffer. If you have an article window open already and you press SPC again, the article will be scrolled. This lets you conveniently SPC through an entire newsgroup. See Paging the Article. Go to the unread article with the highest score gnus-summary-best-unread-article. If given a prefix argument, go to the first unread article that has a score over the default score.
Pop an article off the summary history and go to this article gnus-summary-pop-article. This command differs from the command above in that you can pop as many previous articles off the history as you like, while l toggles the two last read articles. For a somewhat related issue if you use these commands a lot , see Article Backlog.
Ask for an article number or Message-ID , and then go to that article gnus-summary-goto-article. Gnus will then fetch the article from the server and display it in the article buffer. This hook is called whenever an article is selected. The default is nil. If you would like each article to be saved in the Agent as you read it, putting gnus-agent-fetch-selected-article on this hook will do so. It is intended to be used for marking articles as read. The default value is gnus-summary-mark-read-and-unread-as-read , and will change the mark of almost any article you read to gnus-read-mark.
The only articles not affected by this function are ticked, dormant, and expirable articles. It will leave marks like gnus-low-score-mark , gnus-del-mark and so on alone. Pressing SPC will scroll the current article forward one page, or, if you have come to the end of the current article, will choose the next article gnus-summary-next-page.
If gnus-article-skip-boring is non- nil and the rest of the article consists only of citations and signature, then it will be skipped; the next article will be shown instead. You can customize what is considered uninteresting with gnus-article-boring-faces. Re fetch the current article gnus-summary-show-article. If given a prefix twice i. If given a numerical prefix, you can do semi-manual charset stuff. C-u 0 g cn-gb RET will decode the message as if it were encoded in the cn-gb charset.
If you have. Mail a reply to the author of the current article and include the original message gnus-summary-reply-with-original. Mail a wide reply to the author of the current article gnus-summary-wide-reply. A wide reply is a reply that goes out to all people listed in the To , From or Reply-To and Cc headers. Mail a wide reply to the current article and include the original message gnus-summary-wide-reply-with-original.
When replying to a message from a mailing list, send a reply to that message to the mailing list, and include the original message gnus-summary-reply-to-list-with-original. Mail a very wide reply to the author of the current article gnus-summary-wide-reply. Mail a very wide reply to the author of the current article and include the original message gnus-summary-very-wide-reply-with-original.
Mail a reply to the author of the current article but ignore the Reply-To field gnus-summary-reply-broken-reply-to. If you need this because a mailing list incorrectly sets a Reply-To header pointing to the list, you probably want to set the broken-reply-to group parameter instead, so things will work correctly.
See Group Parameters. Mail a reply to the author of the current article and include the original message but ignore the Reply-To field gnus-summary-reply-broken-reply-to-with-original. Forward the current article to some other person gnus-summary-mail-forward. If no prefix is given, the message is forwarded according to the value of message-forward-as-mime and message-forward-show-mml ; if the prefix is 1, decode the message and forward directly inline; if the prefix is 2, forward message as an rfc MIME section; if the prefix is 3, decode message and forward as an rfc MIME section; if the prefix is 4, forward message directly inline; otherwise, the message is forwarded as no prefix given but use the flipped value of message-forward-as-mime.
By default, the forwarded message is inlined into the mail. Prepare a mail gnus-summary-mail-other-window. By default, use the posting style of the current group. If given a prefix, disable that. Prepare a news gnus-summary-news-other-window. By default, post to the current group. If you have sent a mail, but the mail was bounced back to you for some reason wrong address, transient failure , you can use this command to resend that bounced mail gnus-summary-resend-bounced-mail.
You will be popped into a mail buffer where you can edit the headers before sending the mail off again. If you give a prefix to this command, and the bounced mail is a reply to some other mail, Gnus will try to fetch that mail and display it for easy perusal of its headers.
This might very well fail, though. Not to be confused with the previous command, gnus-summary-resend-message will prompt you for an address to send the current message off to, and then send it to that place. This means that you actually send a mail to someone that has a To header that probably points to yourself.
This will confuse people. This command is mainly used if you have several accounts and want to ship a mail to a different account of yours. Ordnung muss sein! Like the previous command, but will allow you to edit the message as if it were a new message before resending. Digest the current series see Decoding Articles and forward the result using mail gnus-uu-digest-mail-forward. Send a complaint about excessive crossposting to the author of the current article gnus-summary-mail-crosspost-complaint.
It will compose a reply using the gnus-crosspost-complaint variable as a preamble. Prepare for posting an article gnus-summary-post-news. If the prefix is 1, prompt for another group instead. Post a followup to the current article and include the original message gnus-summary-followup-with-original. Post a followup to the current article via news, even if you got the message through mail gnus-summary-followup-to-mail. Post a followup to the current article via news, even if you got the message through mail and include the original message gnus-summary-followup-to-mail-with-original.
Forward the current article to a newsgroup gnus-summary-post-forward. By default, the message is decoded and forwarded as an rfc MIME section. Digest the current series and forward the result to a newsgroup gnus-uu-digest-post-forward. Uuencode a file, split it into parts, and post it as a series gnus-uu-post-news. Yank the current article into an already existing Message composition buffer gnus-summary-yank-message. Attach the current article into an already existing Message composition buffer gnus-summary-attach-message.
If no such buffer exists, a new one is created. Then press C or S c gnus-summary-cancel-article. Your article will be canceled—machines all over the world will be deleting your article. Be aware, however, that not all sites honor cancels, so your article may live on here and there, while most sites will delete the article in question. Gnus ensures that only you can cancel your own messages using a Cancel-Lock header see Canceling News in Message Manual.
If you discover that you have made some mistakes and want to do some corrections, you can post a superseding article that will replace your original article. Go to the original article and press S s gnus-summary-supersede-article. You will be put in a buffer where you can edit the article all you want before sending it off the usual way.
The same goes for superseding as for canceling, only more so: Some sites do not honor superseding. On those sites, it will appear that you have posted almost the same article twice. There you will find the article you just posted, with all the headers intact. Then just press C-c C-c to send the article as you would do normally. Sometimes, you might wish to delay the sending of a message.
For example, you might wish to arrange for a message to turn up just in time to remind your about the birthday of your Significant Other. For this, there is the gnus-delay package. Setup is simple:. Normally, to send a message you use the C-c C-c command from Message mode. To delay a message, use C-c C-j gnus-delay-article instead. This will ask you for how long the message should be delayed.
Possible answers are:. The action of the gnus-delay-article command is influenced by a couple of variables:. Toggle navigation Relate. Software to estimate genome-wide genealogies for thousands of samples Relate estimates genome-wide genealogies in the form of trees that adapt to changes in local ancestry caused by recombination.
Download Relate is available for academic use. Improved coalescence rate estimation: The algorithm has been improved and behaviour has changed slightly. The output now always contains all trees, and the threshold parameter only affects iterations leading up to the last one. Relater: R package for handling Relate output files. You can install this package, e.
Preparing input files. Relate also comes with tools for determining the ancestral allele using an ancestral genome and tools for filtering SNPs using a genomic mask. Extracting subtrees and trees of interest. We provide code for converting individual trees of interest into. This file format is convenient, for instance, when visualising a tree. We also provide code for extracting genealogies corresponding to a subpopulation. Plot marginal trees. Relate can be used to plot a marginal tree of interest.
We can see that the derived allele at this SNP has spread rapidly in GBR, which is indicative of strong positive selection. Estimating population sizes and separation histories. Relate can be used to estimate population sizes and separation histories between populations. The inset shows the matrix of coalescent rates between pairs of haplotypes 9, years ago. Rows and columns are sorted by population labels of haplotypes, as indicated by the colour on the left of the matrix.
Estimating mutation rates. Relate can be used to estimate mutation rates through time. Trends shared between mutation categories are eliminated by dividing by the overall average mutation rate. For each population, the mutation rate is normalized such that its mean over time equals one. Detecting positive selection. Relate can be used to detect evidence for positive selection. We calculate a p-value for selection evidence that quantifies how quickly a mutation has spread in the population.
Infer genealogies for ancient samples. Relate can infer genealogies for non-contemporary samples, such as high coverage ancient genomes or time-stamped samples of bacteria or viruses. This plot was generated using the TreeViewSamples. The tree represents the posterior mean times, and "error bars" indicate the 0. Sample branch lengths. Using the SampleBranchLengths. Change-log v1. Date: 14 Dec Modified tree builder when ancients samples are specified see Colate paper for details. Date: 7 Oct Fixed a major bug v1.
Added RelateSlurm. Changed function for anc to newick conversion, to allow multiple trees to be extracted. Fixed bug in EstimatePopulationSize.
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|Quaddie sports betting poker||If dummy-variable has been bound see aboveit will be set to data science sports betting meaningless result of the ding form. For instance, a subscribe topic parameter that looks like. If given a prefix, disable that. Two pre-defined functions exist: gnus-extract-address-componentswhich is the default, quite fast, and too simplistic solution; and mail-extract-address-componentswhich works very nicely, but is slower. It contains scanned pages from different newspapers and magazines in Russian with ground truth pixel-based masks. FOO" total-expire. The gnus-summary-goto-unread variable controls what action should be taken after setting a mark.|
|Sb betting service plays||This will not work. Relater: R package for handling Relate output files. Guitar Chords finger positions : Position of the fingers for guitar chords in standard tuning double checked with software If you discover that you have made some mistakes and want to do some corrections, you can post a superseding article that will replace your original article. Uk equity options brokers forex tradingsat euro dollar.|
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Relate can be used to estimate population sizes and separation histories between populations. The inset shows the matrix of coalescent rates between pairs of haplotypes 9, years ago. Rows and columns are sorted by population labels of haplotypes, as indicated by the colour on the left of the matrix. Estimating mutation rates. Relate can be used to estimate mutation rates through time. Trends shared between mutation categories are eliminated by dividing by the overall average mutation rate.
For each population, the mutation rate is normalized such that its mean over time equals one. Detecting positive selection. Relate can be used to detect evidence for positive selection. We calculate a p-value for selection evidence that quantifies how quickly a mutation has spread in the population. Infer genealogies for ancient samples. Relate can infer genealogies for non-contemporary samples, such as high coverage ancient genomes or time-stamped samples of bacteria or viruses.
This plot was generated using the TreeViewSamples. The tree represents the posterior mean times, and "error bars" indicate the 0. Sample branch lengths. Using the SampleBranchLengths. Change-log v1. Date: 14 Dec Modified tree builder when ancients samples are specified see Colate paper for details. Date: 7 Oct Fixed a major bug v1. Added RelateSlurm. Changed function for anc to newick conversion, to allow multiple trees to be extracted.
Fixed bug in EstimatePopulationSize. Date: 20 May Allowing for non-contemporary samples, e. Added a scripts named TreeViewMutation. Date: 13th August Fixed a small bug that meant memory was misallocated when the --memory value was set too large.
Changed the default for y axis scale in TreeView to not be a log-scale. Date: 27th May Modified default criteria to terminate population size estimation. Modified memory allocation in Relate, where we were allocating too much memory for very small sample sizes N less than Modified error message when poplabels file is misspecified in FinalizePopulationSize - you can just rerun this step again at the end. Included the script RelateSGE.
Fixed a bug in SampleBranchLengths which was introducing small rounding errors. Date: 3rd May Implemented a module which samples branch lengths from the posterior given tree topologies and effective population size histories. Added some more detail to documentation for RelateSelection. Added a more meaningful error message when.
Date: 15th March Now requiring different input and output names for DetectSelection. However, code is more efficient if these columns are appended. Switched to using R package cowplot in TreeView. Date: 25th Feburary Fixed bug in the painting which affects tree topologies sometimes, but has only a small effect not visible in distance measures when comparing to truth in simulations. Currenty, some information is lost by this conversion.
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