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Secondary outcomes were a composite of doubling of creatinine or allograft failure, and recurrent IgAN as a cause of allograft dysfunction. Of the 62 patients, 14 had recurrent IgAN in the allograft. Mean time to recurrence was 2. Those with recurrent disease were younger at the time of native kidney biopsy 29 vs. Features of native IgAN can help predict the risk of recurrent disease in the renal allograft. In particular, immunologically active disease represented by earlier age of onset and greater burden of crescents on native biopsy is more likely to recur after transplant.

Karger AG, Basel. Formation of tight junctions between neighboring podocytes is an early ultrastructural feature in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy TEM was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis NSN from day 1 to day Morphometric analysis was conducted on randomly selected glomeruli captured on TEM digital images.

Results: On day 1 of NSN, there was widespread formation of focal contacts between the cell bodies of neighboring podocytes, and tight junctions were evident at the site of cell-to-cell contact. This was confirmed by the increased expression of the tight junction molecule, zonula occludens-1 ZO-1, which localized to the points of podocyte cell—cell body contact.

On day 2, the interpodocyte distance decreased and the glomerular basement membrane thickness increased. Fibrinoid necrosis and cellular crescents were evident in all glomeruli by days 7 and In vitro, the exposure of podocytes to macrophage-conditioned media altered cellular morphology and caused an intracellular redistribution of ZO Conclusion: The formation of tight.

Crescent shaped Fabry-Perot fiber cavity for ultra-sensitive strain measurement. Optical Fabry-Perot interferometer sensors based on inner air-cavity is featured with compact size, good robustness and high strain sensitivity, especially when an ultra-thin air-cavity is adopted. The typical shape of Fabry-Perot inner air-cavity with reflection mode of operation is elliptic, with minor axis along with and major axis perpendicular to the fiber length.

The first reflection surface is diverging whereas the second one is converging. To increase the visibility of the output interference pattern, the length of major axis should be large for a given cavity length. However, the largest value of the major axis is limited by the optical fiber diameter. If the major axis length reaches the fiber diameter, the robustness of the Fabry-Perot cavity device would be decreased.

Here we demonstrate an ultra-thin crescent shaped Fabry-Perot cavity for strain sensing with ultra-high sensitivity and low temperature cross-sensitivity. The crescent -shape cavity consists of two converging reflection surfaces, which provide the advantages of enhanced strain sensitivity when compared with elliptic or D-shaped FP cavity. The device is fabricated by fusion splicing an etched multimode fiber with a single mode fiber, and hence is simple in structure and economic in cost.

Urinary Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 as a marker of response to immunosuppressive treatment, in patients with crescentic nephritis. Full Text Available Abstract Background Crescentic nephritis is characterized by formation of cellular crescents that soon become fibrotic and result in irreversible damage, unless an effective immunosuppressive therapy is rapidly commenced.

Methods Fifteen patients with crescentic nephritis were included in the study. Twelve patients with other types of proliferative glomerulonephritis and ten healthy subjects were used as controls. Results Improvement of renal function with immunosuppressive therapy was observed in 6 and stabilization in 4 patients serum creatinine from 3.

In 5 patients, with severe impairment of renal function who started on dialysis, no improvement was noted. The main histological feature differentiating these 5 patients from others with improved or stabilized renal function was the percentage patients with poor response to treatment were the percentage of glomeruli with crescents and the presence of ruptured Bowman's capsule and glomerular necrosis. Clinical features and outcomes of ANCA-associated renal vasculitis.

Full Text Available To determine the patterns and outcomes of the pauci-immune vasculitis in the nephrology department at hospital La Conception in Marseille, we conducted a retrospective study including all patients with diagnosis of pauci-immune renal vasculitis between January 1, and December 31, The median age of the patients was The mean serum creatinine at admission was 3.

Two patients with WG received plasmapheresis and seven patients required emergency hemodialysis. Induction therapy comprised cyclophosphamide IV and corticosteroids, while maintenance therapy included azathioprine for the majority of patients. Eighty four percent of the patients experienced complete remission after induction therapy. After 35 months of follow-up, eight patients ended on chronic hemodialysis, and five patients died. ANCA associated vasculitis are frequent in our patients.

The bony crescent sign - a new sign of facial nerve schwannoma. Schwannomas are relatively uncommon intracranial tumours. They most commonly involve the acoustic nerve followed in frequency by the trigeminal nerve. Other cranial nerves are rarely involved. Facial nerve schwannomas occurring within the petrous temporal bone are very rare. Their diagnosis may be missed prospectively even when appropriate computerized tomography CT scans are performed.

Even in retrospect the site of abnormality may be difficult to identify, especially if there is an associated middle ear mass such as a cholesteatoma. In the 4 cases presented the facial nerve schwannoma was seen on high resolution CT as a soft tissue mass bounded anteriorly by a thin rim of bone. This bony crescent sign is a previously undescribed feature of facial nerve schwannoma which appears to be strongly indicative of the presence of this tumour. Recognition of this sign makes these tumours arising in the region of the geniculate ganglion easy to diagnose prospectively.

Full Text Available Conflict is the most important behavioral issues that, in several last deceed organizational behavior scholars intentioned to it. According to this, researchers studied the theatrical basic of research correctly and recognized main component s and variables by descriptive-survey method in this research and selected sample by random sampling and surveyed research assumptions in Golestan Red Crescent organization.

Results of research shows that task conflict related with intergroup trust directly, also there is any relationship between relationship conflict and trust. Finally task conflict related with relationship conflict directly. Generation of highly confined photonic nanojet using crescent -shape refractive index profile in microsphere.

Photonic nanojets PNJs owing to their sub-wavelength near-field features have found many interesting applications like nanoscopy, nano photolithography, high density optical storage, enhancement of Raman signal and single molecule spectroscopy etc. More recently, the focus of research has been on tailoring of PNJs either for better confinement and thus higher peak intensity or for elongation of nanojet for high resolution far field applications.

Department of Energy. Wild relatives of domesticated pea in the Mediterranean Region and the Fertile Crescent will respond to global climate change. There is growing interest in conservation and utilization of crop wild relatives CWR in international food security policy and research. We explored macroecological patterns of wild pea in the Mediterranean Basin and the Fertile Crescent in relation to the past, current and future climate suitabil C1q nephropathy and isolated CD59 deficiency manifesting as necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis: A rare association of two diseases.

Full Text Available C1q nephropathy is a recently described clinico-pathologic entity with a variable clinical presentation and pathology. Crescentic glomerulonephritis GN has been reported in only two patients in the available literature. A middle-aged adult male presented with rapidly progressive renal failure. Serological investigations were negative. Immunofluorescence on the frozen sections showed dominant mesangial deposits of C1q along with IgM. Hematological work-up of the patient revealed isolated CD59 deficiency.

Hence, a final diagnosis of C1q nephropathy and CD59 deficiency manifesting as crescentic GN and hemolytic anemia was made. The co-existence of two rare disorders, C1q nephropathy and CD59 deficiency, in a patient with necrotizing crescentic GN is described for the first time to the best of our knowledge.

The pathogenetic link of these two entities with the clinical manifestation requires further study. Meningeal involvement is an infrequent manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis. Clinical manifestations can be headache with high protein level in the cerebrospinal fluid and an enhanced MRI signal of granulomatous thickening of the duramater in the brain. We report a 57 year-old male with Wegener granulomatosis with onset manifestations of asymptomatic granulomatous meningitis, upper respiratory tract, ears and orbits involvement.

He progressively developed ANCA positive multiple mononeuritis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. The diagnostic confirmation of Wegener's granulomatosis based on a positive ANCA test and on the evidence of systemic disease crescentic glomerulonephritis and involvement of the upper respiratory tract, ears, orbits, peripheral nerves and duramater allowed a prompt initiation of aggressive immunosuppressive treatment with systemic cyclophosphamide and high - dosis corticosteroids.

The patient entered. Rhino-orbitocerebral mucormycosis in a patient with idiopathic crescentic glomerulonephritis. Full Text Available Mucormycosis, caused by mucorales, is an acute, rapidly progressive infection associated with high mortality. Rhino-orbitocerebral infection is the most common variant and is generally seen in association with immune deficiency syndromes. Prompt medical treatment of this infection and debridement decreases the mortality rate.

We describe a year-old man with crescentic glomerulonephritis on maintenance prednisolone therapy. He had earlier received steroid and cyclophosphamide pulse therapies. Renal functions improved following immunosuppressive treatment. In the third month of maintenance therapy, he presented to us with left-sided facial swelling and bloody nasal discharge. He had high blood sugar and acidic blood pH ketoacidosis, probably due to steroid therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head and sinuses showed inflammation and mass in the ethmoid sinus and nose with partial septal destruction, proptosis, global destruction of the left eye, brain infarction and carotid artery obliteration.

Endoscopic biopsy of the sinuses revealed severe tissue necrosis. Samples of nasal discharge and biopsy tissue showed aseptate hyphae on light microscopy and culture, compatible with Rhizopus. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and multiple wound debridements along with ethmoidectomy and enucleation of the left eye.

He was discharged in good general condition but with mild right hemiparesis. On follow-up examination at one year, there were no signs of fungal infection or renal dysfunction. Open wedge metatarsal osteotomy versus crescentic osteotomy to correct severe hallux valgus deformity.

The open wedge osteotomy is a newly introduced method for proximal osteotomy. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the radiological and clinical results after The treatment was proximal In group 2 the angle decreased from The intermetatarsal angle in group 1 was Crescentic and ring-shaped opacities. Voloudaki, A. On CT both cases exhibited crescentic and ring-shaped opacities, surrounding areas of groundglass attenuation, and associated with a nodular pattern in one patient and airspace consolidations in the second patient.

CT-pathologic correlation dislosed that the central areas of groundglass attenuation corresponded to alveolar septal inflammation, in contrast to the denser periphery where granulomatous tissue in peripheral airspaces predominated. In the broad spectrum of CT findings, BOOP can exhibit specific CT features with regard to the crescentic or ring-shaped opacities with a central groundglass attenuation area.

Since these features have not been described in any other disease, they might be characteristic features for the diagnosis of BOOP. Murray Scot. Monitoring plant tissue nitrogen isotopes to assess nearshore inputs of nitrogen to Lake Crescent , Olympic National Park, Washington. Mats of filamentous-periphytic algae present in some nearshore areas of Lake Crescent , Olympic National Park, Washington, may indicate early stages of eutrophication from nutrient enrichment of an otherwise highly oligotrophic lake.

The seasonal timing of blooms of filamentous-periphytic algal near the lake shoreline is also consistent with nitrogen exported from stands of red alder trees Alnus rubra. Isotope biomonitoring of filamentous-periphytic algae may be an effective approach to monitoring the littoral zone for nutrient input to Lake Crescent from septic sources. Ensari's contributions before the decline of the Ottoman Empire]. This article deals with the Indian Red Crescent aids and Dr. Ahmed Ensari's role in this activity during the wars in the early 20th century that led the Ottoman Empire to dismantle.

The Indian Red Crescent presided by Dr. Ensari sent a medical team and sanitary material for the Ottomans battered during the war in Tripoli and the succeeding war at the Balkans The article also deals with the meetings of the above-mentioned medical team with the Ottoman statesmen and dignitaries; its success at the Tripoli front and its projects concerning the Ottoman immigrants from the Balkan region. On their return to India, Dr. Ensari and the members of the team held a series of meetings and spoke of their activities to the people in their country.

They tried to spread their sympathy for the Ottoman-Turkish people even to the outposts of India. This article is an attempt to describe the sympathy of this brother nation Pakistan of today proved by their aids and support far away from their borders. Over the last years the Fertile Crescent of the Near East has seen the emergence of urban agglomerations, small scale polities and large territorial empires, all of which had profound effects on settlement patterns.

Computational approaches, including the use of remote sensing data, allow us to analyse these changes at unprecedented geographical and temporal scales. Here we employ these techniques to examine and compare long term trends in urbanisation, population and climate records.

Maximum city size is used as a proxy for the intensity of urbanisation, whilst population trends are modelled from settlement densities in nine archaeological surveys conducted over the last 30 years across the region. These two measures are then compared with atmospheric moisture levels derived from multiple proxy analyses from two locations close to the study area, Soreq Cave in Israel and Lake Van in south-eastern Turkey, as well as wider literature. The earliest urban sites emerged during a period of relatively high atmospheric moisture levels and conform to a series of size thresholds.

However, after the Early Bronze Age maximum urban size and population levels increase rapidly whilst atmospheric moisture declines. We argue that although the initial phase of urbanization may have been linked to climate conditions, we can see a definitive decoupling of climate and settlement patterns after BC.

We relate this phenomenon to changes in socio-economic organisation and integration in large territorial empires. The complex relationships sustaining urban growth during this later period resulted in an increase in system fragility and ultimately impacted on the sustainability of cities in the long term.

Traditional flat breads spread from the Fertile Crescent : Production process and history of baking systems. By a multidisciplinary approach, this review gives an insight into the variety of traditional flat breads from the Fertile Crescent and related regions, classifying them on the basis of their production process. Moreover, the baking systems adopted to prepare flat breads are reviewed, such as vertical ovens tannur and tabun and griddles saj, whose structure, origin, history, and values are described in detail.

This overview shows that these breads have survived until today because of their versatility. Keywords: Flat bread, Pancake-like bread, saj, tannur, Vertical oven. A Lagrangian analysis of the moisture budget over the Fertile Crescent during two intense drought episodes. The FC suffered two severe drought episodes separated by a 7-year period, in and , which are considered the most severe episodes to hit the region in the last 50 years.

Variability and the source-receptor relationships, concerning their contribution to the precipitation, and the implications regarding the transport of moisture changes over the FC, during the wet season October-May from to were analysed. The analysis showed higher anomalous conditions in the moisture transport from some moisture sources during the two outstanding drought episodes. The key feature of the wet seasons during these episodes was a deficit in the moisture losses over the studied area related to the FC itself, the Red and Arabian Seas sources, followed and to a lesser extent by the eastern Mediterranean Sea over the northern part of the FC region.

Nevertheless, the moisture supply deficit from the sources was much greater during the drought event. The SPEI index at large scales 24 months showed that the episode was part of longer-term drought conditions that had been developing over the previous months, reinforcing the drought severity given recycling processes attributed to the FC. During the two extreme drought episodes, the mountainous terrain over the northern and eastern FC suffered the highest precipitation deficits, and these areas are.

The source of a previously described radiolucent crescent in the flexor cortex of the distal sesamoid navicular bone on the palmaro45 degrees proximal-palmarodistal oblique Pa45 degrees Pr-PaDio clinical radiographic projection was investigated in 48 forelimb navicular bones from 24 Thoroughbreds by use of high-detail radiography and x-ray computed tomography CT.

Twenty-five of these bones also were evaluated, using microradiography and histologic examinations. Of these 25 bones, 5 had been labeled in vivo with fluorochrome markers. Tetrachrome-stained microns-thick nondecalcified sections of these 5 bones were examined, using epifluorescence microscopy. A reinforcement line of compacted cancellous bone, parallel and several millimeters deep to the flexor cortex in the region of the flexor central eminence, was visualized by CT in 42 of 48 navicular bones and by microradiography in 23 of 25 navicular bones investigated.

Variable degrees of compaction were observed in the cancellous bone between the flexor cortex and the reinforcement line. High-detail skyline radiographic projections and reconstructed CT images indicated a crescent -shaped lucency within the flexor central eminence of the flexor cortex in the bones in which the reinforcement line was identified, but the cancellous bone between the reinforcement line and the flexor cortex had not been compacted.

The radiolucent crescent seen in the flexor central eminence of the navicular bone on the Pa45 degrees Pr-PaDiO projection was not caused by the concave defect or synovial fossa of the flexor central eminence overlying the flexor cortex, as was described. Sources and sinks of nitrogen and phosphorus to a deep, oligotrophic lake, Lake Crescent , Olympic National Park, Washington. Lake Crescent , in Olympic National Park in the northwest corner of Washington State is a deep-water lake renowned for its pristine water quality and oligotrophic nature.

To examine the major sources and sinks of nutrients as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved nitrate , a study was conducted in the Lake Crescent watershed. The study involved measuring five major inflow streams, the Lyre River as the major outflow, recording weather and climatic data, coring lake bed sediment, and analyzing nutrient chemistry in several relevant media over 14 months. Water samples for total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and dissolved nitrate from the five inflow streams, the outlet Lyre River, and two stations in the lake were collected monthly from May through May Periodic samples of shallow water from temporary sampling wells were collected at numerous locations around the lake.

Concentrations of nutrients detected in Lake Crescent and tributaries were then applied to the water budget estimates to arrive at monthly and annual loads from various environmental components within the watershed. Other sources, such as leaf litter, pollen, or automobile exhaust were estimated from annual values obtained from various literature sources.

This information then was used to construct a nutrient budget for total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The nitrogen budget generally highlights vehicle traffic-diesel trucks in particular-along U. Highway as a potential major anthropogenic source of nitrogen compounds in the lake.

In contrast, contribution of nitrogen compounds from onsite septic systems appears to be relatively minor related to the other sources identified. High performance 1. Self-aligned buried crescent heterostructure BCH semiconductor lasers and LEDs have been successfully developed as superb light sources for fiber optic communications. Good far field patterns are obtained in both the LEDs and lasers. Measured I-V, L-I, spectrum and far field patterns are presented. Open wedge metatarsal osteotomy versus crescentic osteotomy to correct severe hallux valgus deformity - A prospective comparative study.

Different techniques of proximal osteotomies have been introduced to correct severe hallux valgus. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the radiological and clinical results after operation for severe hallux valgus, comparing the open wedge osteotomy to the crescentic osteotomy which is our traditional treatment.

The treatment was proximal open wedge osteotomy and fixation with plate Hemax , group 1, or operation with proximal crescentic osteotomy and fixation with a 3mm cannulated screw, group 2. The mean age was 52 years Forty-one females and four males were included. Clinical and radiological follow-ups were performed 4 and 12 months after the operation. In group 1 the hallux valgus angle decreased from In group 2 the mean intermetatarsal angle was The relative length of the 1 metatarsal compared to 2 metatarsal bone was 0.

No significant difference was found in the two groups looking at the postoperative improvement of HVA and IMA measured 4 and 12 months postoperatively. Participacao crescente de produtos ultraprocessados na dieta brasileira Respostas de cultivares de girassol a doses crescentes de boro na entressafra do Cerrado Tocantinense.

Responses of sunflower cultivars to increasing doses of boron in the between harvests the Cerrado TocantinenseAbstract: In the brazilian cerrado soil boron deficiency occurs more frequently. The sunflower crop is very sensitive to this micronutrient deficiency, and have little efficiency in its use. In that context, aimed to of this study was to evaluate the response of sunflower cultivars to increasing doses of boron during the between harvests in the cerrado tocantinense.

The experimental design was a randomized block. This initial version of the method has been updated to include: a revised method to estimate tidal uncertainty; an improved method for generating stochastic realizations to estimate slip distribution uncertainty Mai and Beroza, ; Blair, et al. The GeoClaw tsunami model Berger, et. Berger, M. George, R. LeVeque, and K. Mandli, The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement, Adv. Water Res. Blair, J. Geological Survey Data Series , v.

Cornell, C. Geist, E. Hazards, 37 3 , Goldfinger, C. Geological Survey Professional Paper F, p. A pilot project of an online cross-age tutoring program: crescent school virtual learning vLearning. Traditional classroom teaching is the standard of education. However, there may be some students who feel uncomfortable approaching their teachers and may feel more at ease if they ask for assistance from their peers. There are two types of student-to-student tutoring methods that are supplements to classroom learning: peer tutoring between same-age students and cross-age tutoring between different-age children.

Cross-age tutoring programs in which the tutor is years older than the tutee have been reported to be more effective than those between same-age students in promoting student responsibility, empowerment and academic performance. A pilot online cross-age tutoring program was launched in September at Crescent School. A new website was designed, created and implemented with the permission and regular monitoring of the Student Services faculty for the online program - Crescent School Virtual Learning vLearning.

The program was well received and will undergo evaluation in the future. A crescent -shape moderator cell covered by the sub-cooling helium jacket is adopted. A crescent -shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for corresponding it to the 4 cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen not liquid deuterium were used as a cold moderator.

The sub-cooling helium jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the inner shell. Such a type of a moderator cell is suitable for the CNS with higher nuclear heating.

The cold helium gas flows down firstly into the sub-cooling helium jacket and then flows up to the condenser. Therefore, the theory of the self-regulation for the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable. Narrowing the harvest: Increasing sickle investment and the rise of domesticated cereal agriculture in the Fertile Crescent. For the first time we integrate quantitative data on lithic sickles and archaeobotanical evidence for domestication and the evolution of plant economies from sites dated to the terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene ca.

We find a strong correlation in some regions, throughout the Levant, for increasing investment in sickles that tracks the evidence for increasing reliance on cereal crops, while evidence for morphological domestication in wheats Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum and barley Hordeum vulgare was delayed in comparison to sickle use.

These data indicate that while the co-increase of sickle blades and cereal crops support the protracted development of agricultural practice, sickles did not drive the initial stages of the domestication process but rather were a cultural adaptation to increasing reliance on cereals that were still undergoing selection for morphological change.

For other regions, such as the Eastern Fertile Crescent and Cyprus such correlations are weaker or non-existent suggesting diverse cultural trajectories to cereal domestication. We conclude that sickles were an exaptation transferred to cereal harvesting and important in signalling a new cultural identity of "farmers". Furthermore, the protracted process of technological and agricultural evolution calls into question hypotheses that the transition to agriculture was caused by any particular climatic event.

A crescent -shape moderator cell covered by the helium sub-cooling jacket is adopted. The structure of the moderator cell is optimized by the stress FEM analysis. A crescent -shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for fitting it to the four cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen, not liquid deuterium, was used as a cold moderator.

The helium sub-cooling jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the outer shell of the moderator cell. The cold helium gas flows down first into the helium sub-cooling jacket and then flows up to the condenser.

The theory of the self-regulation suitable to the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable and validated. The crescent sign: dissociation of the polyethylene liner from a modular acetabular component in total hip arthroplasty. To study whether there was a common pattern of clinical symptoms, signs and radiographic features for the dissociation of the polyethylene liner from an acetabular component and to postulate reasons for these features.

Mary's Hospital, Bristol, UK between and Patients were contacted to confirm preoperative symptoms. Nine cases of late polyethylene liner dissociation of this prosthesis have been revised in these institutions. All patients presented with a reduction in mobility, groin pain and limp. Eight patients reported an audible noise on hip movement. In all cases, radiographs showed radiolucency medial to the femoral neck in association with an eccentrically placed femoral head showing contact with the acetabular metal shell, which we have termed the '' crescent sign.

The diagnosis can be made from a single anteroposterior pelvic radiograph without the need for previous films for comparison, or the need for arthrography. Clinicians should look specifically for the crescent sign when an eccentrically placed femoral head has been noted, in order to differentiate the more unusual diagnosis of dissociation from that of polyethylene wear. Early revision surgery can prevent damage to the femoral head and metal acetabular shell, thus reducing the complexity of revision surgery.

Spacecraft observations of a Maxwell Demon coating the separatrix of asymmetric magnetic reconnection with crescent -shaped electron distributions. Egedal, J. During asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the dayside magnetopause in situ spacecraft mea- surements show that electrons from the high density inflow penetrate some distance into the low density inflow. Supported by a kinetic simulation, we present a general derivation of an exclusion energy parameter, which provides a lower kinetic energy bound for an electron to jump across the reconnection region from one inflow region to the other.

As by a Maxwell Demon, only high energy electrons are permitted to cross the inner reconnection region, strongly impacting the form of the electron distribution function observed along the low density side separatrix. The dynamics produce two distinct flavors of crescent -shaped electron distributions in a thin boundary layer along the separatrix between the magnetospheric inflow and the reconnection exhaust.

The analytical model presented relates these salient details of the distribution function to the electron dynamics in the inner reconnection region. A year-old Japanese man presented with a year history of nasal obstruction and a 2-month history of slight headache. Histopathological examination of the granulomatous mucosa in the ethmoid sinuses resected by endoscopic sinus surgery revealed necrotizing vasculitis with multinucleated giant cells.

The patient was diagnosed with the limited form of GPA as a result of the systemic examination. He declined immunosuppressive treatment. Eighteen months after the diagnosis of GPA, he presented with diplopia and severe headache. Though nasal findings indicating GPA were not observed in the nasal cavity, CT scan revealed a lesion of the right sphenoid sinus eroding the bone of the clivus. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the brain showed thickening of the dura mater around the right cavernous sinus and clivus.

Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography revealed narrowing at the C5 portion of the ICA. Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide resolved headache and dramatically improved HCP and stenosis of the ICA. Endogenous Tim-1 Kim-1 promotes T-cell responses and cell-mediated injury in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis.

We sought to define the role of endogenous Tim-1 in experimental T-cell-mediated glomerulonephritis induced by sheep anti-mouse glomerular basement membrane globulin acting as a planted foreign antigen. T-cell proliferation and apoptosis decreased in the immune system along with a selective reduction in Th1 and Th17 cellular responses both in the immune system and within the kidney. The urinary excretion and renal expression of Kim-1 was reduced by anti-Tim-1 antibodies reflecting diminished interstitial injury.

The effects of anti-Tim-1 antibodies were not apparent in the early phase of renal injury, when the immune response to sheep globulin was developing. Thus, endogenous Tim-1 promotes Th1 and Th17 nephritogenic immune responses and its neutralization reduces renal injury while limiting inflammation in cell-mediated glomerulonephritis.

Functional traits differ between cereal crop progenitors and other wild grasses gathered in the Neolithic fertile crescent. Full Text Available The reasons why some plant species were selected as crops and others were abandoned during the Neolithic emergence of agriculture are poorly understood.

We tested the hypothesis that the traits of Fertile Crescent crop progenitors were advantageous in the fertile, disturbed habitats surrounding early settlements and in cultivated fields. We screened functional traits related to competition and disturbance in a group of grass species that were increasingly exploited by early plant gatherers, and that were later domesticated crop progenitors; and in a set of grass species for which there is archaeological evidence of gathering, but which were never domesticated wild species.

We hypothesised that crop progenitors would have greater seed mass, growth rate, height and yield than wild species, as these traits are indicative of greater competitive ability, and that crop progenitors would be more resilient to defoliation. Our results show that crop progenitors have larger seed mass than wild species, germinate faster and have greater seedling size. Increased seed size is weakly but positively correlated with a higher growth rate, which is primarily driven by greater biomass assimilation per unit leaf area.

Crop progenitors also tend to have a taller stature, greater grain yield and higher resilience to defoliation. Collectively, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that adaptations to competition and disturbance gave crop progenitors a selective advantage in the areas surrounding early human settlements and in cultivated environments, leading to their adoption as crops through processes of unconscious selection.

Th1 cells are central pathogenic mediators of crescentic GN cGN. Mechanisms responsible for Th1 cell downregulation, however, remain widely unknown. The percentage of Treg1 cells progressively increased in kidneys of nephritic wild-type mice during the course of NTN, indicating their functional importance.

Furthermore, absence of Treg1 cells resulted in aggravated NTN with selectively dysregulated renal and systemic Th1 responses. However, in competitive cotransfer experiments, wild-type Treg cells outcompeted T-bet-deficient Treg cells in terms of population expansion and expression levels of Foxp3, indicating that T-bet expression is crucial for general Treg fitness. Additionally, T-bet-deficient Treg cells lacked expression of the Th1-characteristic trafficking receptor CXCR3, which correlated with significant impairment of renal Treg infiltration.

In summary, our data indicate a new subtype of Treg cells in cGN. These Treg1 cells are characterized by activation of the transcription factor T-bet, which enhances the overall fitness of these cells and optimizes their capacity to downregulate Th1 responses by inducing chemokine receptor CXCR3 expression. Concurrent IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive crescentic glomerulonephritis: A case report. The typical pathological finding in the kidney is abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration with characteristic storiform fibrosis in the interstitium.

Here, we report a rare case of kidney injury with concurrent typical IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 subclass of myeloperoxidase MPO ANCA-positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis.

A year-old Chinese man presented with repeated epigastric pain, sausage-shaped pancreas observed morphologically in computed tomography, effectiveness of prednisone therapy and was diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. He subsequently developed acute kidney injury. Renal biopsy revealed necrotizing crescentic nephritis and typical IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. The patient was treated with a combination of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, and a course of rituximab was later added to deplete peripheral B cells.

The patient responded well and his renal function improved. It raises the difficulty in differentiation diagnosis of the two separate diseases that is worthy of further study. As borregas foram abatidas com 47 kg. Arthroscopic repair of large U-shaped rotator cuff tears without margin convergence versus repair of crescent - or L-shaped tears. For large-sized tears of the rotator cuff, data according to the tear shape have not yet been reported for repair methodology, configuration, and subsequent integrity.

The retear rate after the repair of large mobile tears, such as crescent - or L-shaped tears, is believed to be lower compared with retear rates after the repair of large U-shaped tears that are accompanied by anterior or posterior leaves of the rotator cuff. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were collected and analyzed from 95 consecutive patients with a large-sized rotator cuff tear who underwent arthroscopic suture-bridge repair.

Patients were divided into 2 groups: those having crescent - or L-shaped tears mobile tear group, 53 patients and those having U-shaped tears U-shaped tear group, 42 patients. The integrity of the repaired constructs was determined by ultrasonography at 4. Moreover, clinical evaluations were performed by using the Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ASES score, and muscle strength at intervals of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively.

On ultrasonography at 4. Significant differences in retear rates were not detected between the groups overall or at each time point. Moreover, clinical scores were similar between groups, except for the presence of a temporarily higher Constant score at 12 months in the mobile tear group.

With regard to shoulder strength, between-group comparisons indicated no statistically significant difference, either in abduction or external rotation, except for the presence of temporarily higher external rotation strength at 3 months in the mobile tear group. Arthroscopic repair of large-sized rotator cuff tears yielded substantial improvements in shoulder function, regardless of tear retraction, during midterm follow-up.

Moreover, the. Adapting to climate change and addressing drought — learning from the Red Cross Red Crescent experiences in the Horn of Africa. Full Text Available The paper presented here is intended to share lessons learnt from the operations that the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies IFRC and its National Societies undertook from to in the Horn of Africa, related to the adaptation to climate change and addressing drought.

It acknowledges that to avoid further suffering from drought, not only in Africa in the Horn and the Sahel region but also other parts of the world, we need to change the way we invest. The IFRC advocates that for a national drought policy to be effective in its implementation, the policy itself will need to be developed with an integrated approach, a strong linkage to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in a country.

An overlap of granulomatosis with polyangiitis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. We report a year-old female who presented with rapidly progressive renal failure associated with fever, polyarthralgia, and respiratory symptoms with cytoplasmic antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody ANCA and proteinase PR-3 antigen positivity.

Computerized tomography scan of the chest showed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with renal biopsy revealing pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis with intense eosinophilic infiltration suggestive of eosinophilic GPA EGPA. She was treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide and attained remission after 2 weeks of therapy.

The crescent and the periluminal halo: Two Computed Tomography signs of aortic aneurysm impending rupture? Purpose: To assess the prevalence, significance and practical value of two recently described CT signs of instable aneurysm: the crescent sign and the periluminal halo a low-attenuating internal layer of the thrombus around the patent lumen.

Material and methods: Among the CT examination performed in the last 5 years, they retrospectively selected the nonruptured aneurysms with a diameter exceeding 4 cm no. They studied the prevalence of the crescent and halo sing, their relationship with the aneurysm diameter, and the effect of contrast enhancement.

Results: The crescent sign was identified with a statistically significant prevalence in ruptured Both signs were more frequent in bigger aneurysms and were recognizable without differences in unenhanced and enhanced images. Conclusions: The crescent sign, though not exclusive of aneurysmal rupture, indicates instability and its detection should lead to careful follow-up or surgical repair.

The halo seems to have no real value as risk factor. Final report. An airborne combining radiometric and magnetic survey was performed for the Department of Energy over the area covered by the Burns, Crescent , Canyon City, Bend, and Salem, Washington , National Topographic Map Series, 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle maps. Data were collected by a helicopter equipped with a gamma-ray spectrometer having a large crystal volume, and a high sensitivity proton precession magnetometer.

Data quality was ensured throughout the survey by daily test flights and equipment checks. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence.

The corrected data were statistically evaluated, plotted, and contoured to produce anomaly maps based on the radiometric response of individual geological units. These maps were interpreted and an anomaly interpretation map produced. Volume I contains a description of the systems used in the survey, a discussion of the calibration of the systems, the data processing procedures, the data display format, the interpretation rationale, and the interpretation methodology.

A separate Volume II for each quadrangle contains the data displays and the interpretation results. Seasonal deformation and active landslide thickness revealed by spaceborne InSAR observations: a case study of Crescent lake landslide, WA. Understanding the precipitation triggering mechanism and quantifying the creeping landslide thickness are important to conduct early warnings and estimate potential failure volume and runout extent.

However, it is problematic to use traditional geodetic methods to identify the active landslide boundaries and capture the transient mobility over hilly and vegetated landslide landscape. Time-series measurements reveal the seasonal deformation of landslide lobe, showing a much larger magnitude compared to the motion at lower elevated terrain expressed by an off-slide GPS station, suggesting an amplified hydrological loading effect associated with thick unconsolidated zone.

Thanks to the high temporal resolution of Sentinel-1A and on-slide GPS data, we capture the progressive incipient motions in the wet season, characterized by the elastic slope-normal contraction due to loading during antecedent rainfall, followed by downslope slip and lateral propagation in less than one-month intense precipitation, because the elevated pore pressure and the reduced friction at the basal instigate the shear motion.

The proposed threshold precipitation concept, in terms of the intensity and duration, can be an integral part of the landslide warning system. The active thickness can be inverted using three-dimensional 3D displacement map based on the principle of mass conservation. We extract quasi-3D displacements using two independent ascending and descending InSAR measurements assuming that the targets move exclusively along the aspect direction on the slope-parallel plane.

This routine of the extraction of quasi-3D displacement and the inversion of active lobe thickness can be utilized in the study of. Se manipularon los factores de estudio: A. Cantidad de levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2 y 5 mL. O alimento foi fornecido a vontade entre 8 e 20 horas. The present study was developed with the purpose of evaluating the effects of different protein levels in initial performance of Rhamdia quelen larvae during the first three weeks of life.

The sample contained larvae distributed in fifteen groups, maintained in controlled conditions of culture and utilizing termoregulatory water re-use system. The granulometry of tested food was of a mu, a mu and a mu for three experimental weeks respectively. Food distribution provided at ease between 8 Am and 8 Pm.

Within the net protein used in this research, there was found a positive effect for the highest protein levels for total, standard lenght and individual weight. Manganese-bearing deposits near Lake Crescent and Humptulips, Washington: Chapter A in Contributions to economic geology short papers and preliminary reports , Part I - Metals and nonmetals except fuels.

The Crescent mine, situated a short distance west of Lake Crescent , in the Olympic Mountains of Washington, yields an unusually high grade of manganese ore, which is suitable for making steel. Several manganiferous lodes of promising appearance have been found in the same area, and some near Humptulips, on the south side of the mountains.

These and deposits on Skokomish River and at other places in the Olympic region are distributed around three sides of the mountains through a distance of miles. The characteristic and generally the most abundant manganese mineral in this belt is bementite, a silicate of manganese that is rare elsewhere. Hausmannite, a suboxide of manganese Mn3O4 that is also rather uncommon, occurs in several of the deposits and is locally abundant in the Crescent mine, where it forms the most valuable constituent of the ore.

In addition more or less of a manganiferous carbonate is present, and bodies composed of fine-grained quartz and iron oxides form a large but separate part of the lodes. The deposits are associated with an impure red limestone of marine origin, which is probably to be correlated with the Franciscan formation of California. The limestone is overlain by a thick series of basaltic flows and tuff of Tertiary age that are partly altered to greenstone.

The manganese is thought to have been deposited originally with the limestone as a carbonate. The concentration and change of much of it from the carbonate into bementite and hausmannite are believed to have been caused by warm solutions charged with silica that were expressed from the lavas or their magma. Afterward mountain-building movements and erosion elevated and exposed the manganiferous beds. The beds at the horizon of the manganiferous deposits are very incompletely explored and are to be regarded as the possible source of large quantities of ore.

ANCA positivity in a patient with infective endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis: a diagnostic dilemma. Glomerulonephritis GN is an immunological phenomenon in bacterial endocarditis. Each type of glomerulonephritis usually occurs in isolation. Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the mycorrhizal dependency of mangaba tree Hancornia speciosa plantlets, under increasing levels of phosphorus fertilization. After days of growth, plantlets with inoculation of native mycorrhizal pool produced more shoot and root dry biomass and had higher shoot phosphorus content and accumulation.

The noninoculated control showed the lowest values, independently of the phosphorus level. The highest relative mycorrhizal dependency occurred with the inoculation of native mycorrhizal fungi. Plants with mycorrhizal fungi did not respond to phosphorus addition above 50 mg kg Mangaba tree is highly dependent on mycorrhiza, but the degree of dependency varies according to phosphorus levels and fungal inocula.

In general, mangaba tree is more responsive to mycorrhizal fungi inoculation than to phosphorus addition. Full Text Available A rat model of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody ANCA associated vasculitides reveals crescentic glomerulonephritis as seen in human renal biopsies and diffuse lung hemorrhage that is not well documented in human lung biopsies. A year-old male, with shortness of breath and mild elevation of serum creatinine, was found to have a positive serum test for ANCA, but negative antiglomerular basement membrane antibody.

A renal biopsy showed pauci-immune type of crescentic glomerulonephritis and focal arteritis. The prior lung wedge biopsy was retrospectively reviewed to show diffuse hemorrhage and hemosiderosis with focal giant cells. In addition, small arteries revealed subtle neutrophil aggregation, and margination along vascular endothelium, but no definitive vasculitis.

The pathology of ANCA associated vasculitides results from activated neutrophils by ANCA and subsequent activation of the alternative complement cascade with endothelial injury, neutrophil aggregation and margination. Our findings, after the correlation between lung biopsy and renal biopsy, imply that the top differential diagnosis in the lung biopsy should be microscopic polyangiitis when diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis are present in this ANCA-positive patient.

Renal-limited myeloperoxidase vasculitis with simultaneous rheumatoid arthritis is reported as a rare occurrence. Review of literature suggests that most patients had a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis for several years prior to presenting with renal failure from myeloperoxidase vasculitis. Case Presentation. A year-old Caucasian male presented to the hospital experiencing malaise, fevers, decreased oral intake, nausea, and vomiting for one week duration.

His past medical history consisted of newly diagnosed but untreated rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. He was found to have acute renal failure, proteinuria, and hypoglycemia. Standard therapy, including intravenous fluids, did not improve his acute renal failure.

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