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The dynamics of fire regimes in tropical peatlands in Central Kalimantan , Borneo. As a carbon-rich ecosystem, tropical peatland contributes significantly to terrestrial carbon storage and stability of the global carbon cycle. Vast areas of tropical peatland in SE Asia are degraded by the increasingly intensive scale of human activities, illustrated by high rates of deforestation, poor land-use management, selective illegal logging, and frequently repeated fires.

Analysis of time-series satellite images performed in this study confirmed that fire regimes have dramatically changed in tropical peatlands over the last three decades The study was conducted in the southern part of Central Kalimantan Indonesian Borneo. We found that there was an evident increase in fire frequency and a decline in the fire return interval after implementation of the Mega Rice Project This situation changed significantly during the last decade , when the widespread, intensive fires of affected a much larger area.

Then, in and , a further large area of peatland was on fire. Near-annual occurrence of fire events reduces the rate and nature of vegetation regrowth. Hence, we observed a shift in the fire fuel type and amount over the period of investigation.

After , the fire fuel shifted from mainly peat swamp forest biomass towards non-woody biomass, dominated by regenerating vegetation, mainly ferns and a few trees. This secondary vegetation has been shown to be fire prone, although fire propagation is slower than in forest and restricted by both low fuel quality and load.

Furthermore, we investigated the interaction. Assessment of atmospheric impacts of biomass open burning in Kalimantan , Borneo during Biomass burning from the combustion of agricultural wastes and forest materials is one of the major sources of air pollution. The objective of the study is to investigate the major contribution of the biomass open burning events in the island of Borneo , Indonesia to the degradation of air quality in equatorial Southeast Asia.

A total of active fire counts were detected by the MODIS Aqua satellite during August , and consequently, elevated the PM10 concentration levels at six air quality stations in the state of Sarawak, in east Malaysia, which is located in northwestern Borneo. The average correlation between the ground level PM10 concentrations and the satellite derived aerosol optical depth AOD of 0.

The trajectory analysis of the low level mesoscale meteorological conditions simulated by the TAPM model illustrated the influence of the sea and land breezes within the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer, embedded within the prevailing monsoonal southwesterlies, in circulating the aged and new air particles within Sarawak. Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the development of community forests in South Kalimantan and information about the properties and benefits of community forest timber, the hopes community forests timber can be developed into a source of raw materials of natural forest wood substitute that can support the development of the wood processing industry in South Kalimantan.

The result showed that Community forest proved to be very useful both for the owner, the community and the environment as well as for the government especially in order to meet the timber supply for local. Until the year the community forest area that was developed by the government in South Kalimantan has reached 2, ha, and the most widely are the Tanah Laut district covering ha.

The wood species that developed is sengon, jati, mahoni, karet, petai, akasia, galam, kemiri. The properties of the wood need to be understood and known before the relevant timber used both as a building material or as raw material for the industry, because these properties are basically determining the quality of wood products that will be produced.

Full Text Available Until now the raw material of wood especially Gelam Melaleuca cajuputi available for supporting the construction of housing and other infrastructures is increasingly large in Indonesia. On the Island of Borneo that partly consists of swamps needs Gelam very large and continuous, particularly for residential development.

However, areas of peat swamp forest habitat of this plant from year to year are degradation and shrinkage. This situation is a very big influence on the population of Gelam, while the management and timber trade systems are not well regulated. This study aims to analyze the management and timber trade systems of Gelam particularly in South Kalimantan to provide input to the policy holder in the preservation of Gelam.

The method was used a field survey and interviews with traders and policy holders related regulations. Normally Gelam with a diameter 30 cm. These dimensions should not be cut because of 30 cm can be used as seed sources. Gelam derived from peat swamp forest, which mostly comes from the Batola District and some came from Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan.

The silviculture system of Gelam was using selective cutting. Its use consists of a small diameter cm for foundry building and firewood, while the large diameter cm for the construction of houses in swampy areas, and waste as well as the stems are bent and deformed used for firewood.

Until now Gelam. Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes Bubalus carabanensis in Kalimantan. More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes.

Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia. Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation. In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine.

Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia. Haemorrhagic septicaemia HS is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2. The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in s.

The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area. Hulu Sungai Utara district. Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation. Full Text Available This paper presents a historical overview of the dynamics of inter-religious relations in South Kalimantan.

Early conversion to Islam in the 16th century, and more intensive Islamization by the 18th century, can be seen as the formative period of Islam in this region. The encounter and clash between the new religion and the existing beliefs and practices were unavoidable.

By the late 19th century, the clash seems to move to another target, namely the colonial power associated with Christianity. By this period, Islam was transformed from the court into a people movement against the colonial power.

By the first half of the 20th century, the problem of the 18th century apparently reappeared but in another form, namely the clash between puritan and traditional Islam. The making of the Indonesian nation state by the second half of the 20th century pushed the Banjarese Muslims to be involved in the ideological debates, and even in a rebellion against the state. During the Soeharto period, Muslim-Christian tensions at the national politics also influenced this region.

Finally, in the Reformation Era, the Muslims in the province face serious challenges of intra- and inter-religious plurality. An economic analysis of midwifery training programmes in South Kalimantan , Indonesia. In order to improve the knowledge and skills of midwives at health facilities and those based in villages in South Kalimantan , Indonesia, three in-service training programmes were carried out during A scheme used for both facility and village midwives included training at training centres, peer review and continuing education.

One restricted to village midwives involved an internship programme in district hospitals. The incremental cost-effectiveness of these programmes was assessed from the standpoint of the health care provider. It was not clear whether the training programmes were more or less cost-effective than other safe motherhood interventions because the nature of the outcome measures hindered comparison.

New ceramic data from East Kalimantan : the cord-marked and red-slipped sherds of Liang Abu's layer 2 and Kalimantan 's potter chronology. In order to discuss our findings we undertake a reappraisal of the pottery material and associated radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites on Borneo Island, which provide us with an appropriate framework for a comparative analysis. This allows us to to include the inland region of Kalimantan in the technological network of Neolithic Island South East Asia.

Prospect development of local beef cattle from South Kalimantan as supporting to food sovereignty in Indonesia. Indonesian local cattle is one of cattle the largest contributed the national meat production of ruminant particular group of cattle so that the livestock has the potential to be developed as a profitable business if doing of farmer.

One of advantages is potential areas in South Kalimantan mainly swamp lands was very large. Research methods combined mixed methods with a combination of research model Sequential Exploratory Design qualitative approach to support quantitative and centered on quantitative Sugiono case control design. The number of qualitative sample was 16 respondents to interviews and 48 respondents for FGD. The number of quantitative research sample was consisted of 62 cases and controls.

Qualitative sampling by purposive sampling and quantitative Multi-stage Cluster random sampling on 3 stages. The results showed a positive effect on the socio-cultural environment and significantly associated with the incidence of Tuberculosis Children.

While the physical environment of the house positively and significantly with biological environments and the incidence of Tuberculosis Children and immunization and nutrition status of children positively and significantly to the incidence of Tuberculosis of the Child as well as to the biological environment positive and significant effect on the incidence of TB Children.

The results of all the R-square value indicates that all of the R-square values 0. New findings from research of this dissertation are 1. Research Variable of social networks social support and collective efficacy were associated with the incidence of Tuberculosis Children. Purification process was done by sedimentation to obtain relative pure kaolinite. The adsorption process was carried out in a batch system and the effect of pH, contact time and GA3 concentration were experimentally studied to evaluate the adsorption capacity.

The amount of GA3 adsorbed was determined by UV spectrophotometer. The result showed that the raw kaolin from South Kalimantan consist of Adsorption of GA3 was described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model with adsorption capacity of 8. Keywords: kaolin, gibberellic acid, adsorption. Kandangan mainstay region as one of three leading regions in South Kalimantan which potentially improved to push economy growth through agriculture based industry activity agroindustry.

The concept of agroindustry a side is expected to drive economic growth as well as to realize the equitable distribution of income. This research aims to: 1 identify to economic development of the region in Kandangan mainstay regions, 2 identify the main commodity, 3 identify means of supporting agroindustry, and 4 formulating development strategies based agroindustry region. Entropy analysis shows the development of the economy sufficiently developed in Kandangan mainstay region dominated by the agricultural sector, namely food crops subsector.

LQ an SSA analysis shows corn and rice crops become competitive commodities. There are only few of supporting infrastructure agroindustry activities. Strategy formulation in the research is the improvement of infrastructure or infrastructure that can facilitate inter regional connectivity in the region mainstay Kandangan and the government as the leading actor agroindustry development.

Biomass burning is the principal tool for land clearing and a primary driver of land use change in Kalimantan the Indonesian part of Borneo island. Biomass burning here has consumed millions of hectares of peatland and swamp forests. It also degrades air quality in Southeast Asia, perturbs the global carbon cycle, threatens ecosystem health and biodiversity, and potentially affects the global water cycle.

Over August to December , our result shows a north- south dipole pattern in the long-term changes in terrestrial water storage TWS and groundwater storage GWS. Both TWS and GWS increase in the northern part of Kalimantan , while they decrease in the southern part where fire events are the most severe. We use GRACE estimates, burned area, carbon emissions, and hydroclimatic data to study the relationship between biomass burning and water storage losses.

The analysis shows that extensive biomass burning results in excessive evapotranspiration, which then increases long-term water storage losses in the fire-prone region of Kalimantan. Our results show the potentials of GRACE and its follow-on missions in assisting water storage and fire managements in a region with extensive biomass burning such as Kalimantan.

Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertuiuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran umum kineria industri lapis di Kalimantan Selatan saat ini. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan mengamati data industri kayu lapis di Kalsel saat ini dan detail pengamatan pada 3 tiga industri, yaitu PT.

SST, PT. WTU dan PT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa industri kayu lapis umumnva memiliki kesamaan dalam proses dan mesin produksinya. Dari ke 3 industri kayu lapis yang diteliti vang membedakan adalah macam produk dan bahan baku kayunva. Dalam penanganan aspek lingkungan, industri kavu lapis mempunyai kesamaan dalam hal penanganan limbahnva.

Penanganan limbah kayu dengan memanfaatkan kembali sebagian limbah kayu sebagai produk blockboard dan sisanva sebagai bahan bakar boiler. Untuk penanganan limbah cair. Kata kunci: industri plywood, proses produksi, hasil dan kualitas, limbah cair. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan , Indonesia. Full Text Available Coal mine overburden OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals.

This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps 7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. There were plant species, consisted of 79 herbs Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees.

A number of Poaceae, i. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site.

Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species. Full Text Available The ability of swamp buffaloes to adapt with swamp environment was suggested to be supported bytheir digestive system efficiency. The research was done to obtain scientific explanation about digestiveefficiency of swamp buffalo by identification on kinds and distribution of glycoconjugates in swamp buffaloforestomach.

Six male swamp buffaloes aged more than 2. Samples were obtained from Regency of Banjar slaughter house, SouthKalimantan. Every parts of the forestomach included rumen, reticulum, and omasum was taken andprocessed for microscopic observation with hematoxyline eosin HE and alcian blue-periodic acid schiff AB-PAS stainings. Every part of swamp buffalo forestomach had kinds ofspecific glycoconjugates with special distribution pattern which were different with other ruminant, andwere suitable for their functions in that part.

This is suggested as aspecial characteristic in digestive system of swamp buffalo which causes high digestive efficiency inswamp buffalo. Bacteriologica acteriological examinations of ducklings, duck's eggs, feed, and rice bran collected from Alibio market, South Kalimantan. Full Text Available Bakteriological examinations of samples consisted of ducklings, duck's eggs feed and rice bran collected from Alabio market, South Kalimantan were conducted in the laboratory during the year and Result of the examinations showed that 22 isolates of Salmonella Hadar, were isolated from internal organ of ducklings Besides, other bacteria were also isolated namely Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp.

Enterobacter sp, Proteus sp. No pathogenic bacteria were isolated from feed as well as from rice bran. In this study, we used insect nets, yellow sticky traps, light trap and pitfall trap to get the sample or catch the arthropods in one period of planting season. The arthropods caught were then classified into some classes: pest herbivore, natural enemy parasitoid and predator, and other arthropods. The sum of arthropods which have the characteristic of pest and parasitoid were higher in the IPM paddy fields than in the non-IPM paddy fields, and the sum of other arthropods were the same.

The IS value for each three locations were Maleise zonberen, die voornamelijk fruit en insecten eten, kunnen in deze verbrande bossen nauwelijks eten vinden omdat meer dan tachtig procent van de bomen is gestorven. Doordat in korte tijd grote stukken. This isdue to the similaritybetween Wujudiyah Sufism with the concept of Irfan in Shi'a. This study was conducted to determine the level of community perception on LCWB and the land waste utilization by the community in Gambut Sub-district, South Kalimantan , Indonesia.

The results showed that 15 respondent Low level of community participation is caused by community understanding about CLBW still low. Waste types which usually utilize by community was grass and rice husks. The wastes were used as organic fertilizer and animal feed without further processing.

Full Text Available As the windows of information, communication facilitator role in Government Public Relation GPR serve as all-in-and-out of information from or to publics. This research intends to knowing communication facilitator role to provide information to people and otherwise. This research uses qualitative approach with descriptive case study method, the data collection through observation and depth interview with informants purposively selection.

The research result showing the communication facilitator role in GPR Bureau is not optimal, caused by unavailable information who can be accessed by the public or the otherwise. Government Information which should can be accessed at government official website or at the social media not be optimized by the GPR Bureau well as the Main Information Management and Documentation Officer IMDO whose role is held by the GPR Bureau of the information that should be accessible through the website, is not available.

This contrasts with some Local Work Unit function only a Subsidiary IMDO, but they were ready to provide information to the public through a website managed. PAH contamination in soils adjacent to a coal-transporting facility in Tapin district, south Kalimantan , Indonesia.

This study was undertaken to determine the level of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAH , listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA , in surface soils around a coal-transporting facility in the western part of South Kalimantan , Indonesia. Three composite soil samples were collected from a coal stockpile, coal-hauling road, and coal port. Identification and quantification of PAH was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

The levels of high molecular-weight PAH 5- and 6-ring were dominant and formed The degree of PAH contamination and subsequent toxicity assessment suggest that the soils of the study area are highly contaminated and pose a potential health risk to humans. Bauhinia Pottsii G. Bauhinia is one of the largest genus in Caesalpiniaceae family and distributed in all tropical area.

One among species of Bauhinia is Bauhinia pottsii G. It was recorded that one specimen was originated from East Kalimantan and collected in Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer EPMA.

Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The assemblage yields 1. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.

It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition. Magnetic properties of 22 river samples collected in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo , Luzon and Taiwan have been investigated in order to magnetically characterize the sediments drained and deposited into the South China Sea.

The geological formations as well as the present climatic conditions are different from one region to another. Laboratory analyses include low-field magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic ARM and isothermal IRM remanent magnetizations acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three-axes IRM, hysteresis cycles and low-temperature magnetic measurements. The magnetic properties indicate that the sediments are a mixture of hematite, magnetite and pyrrhotite in different proportions depending on the region.

Combined with results previously reported for the three main Asian rivers Pearl, Red and Mekong rivers , the new data indicate that, in general, hematite-rich sediments are delivered to the southern basin of the South China Sea while the northern basin is fed with magnetite and pyrrhotite-rich sediments.

In addition to this general picture, some variability is observed at smaller geographic scales. Indeed, the magnetic assemblages are closely related to the geology of the various catchments while clay minerals, previously reported for the same samples, are more representative of the climatic conditions under which the parent rocks have evolved within each catchment.

The magnetic fraction, now well characterized in the main river sediments drained into the South China Sea, can be used as a tracer for changes in precipitation on land and in oceanic water mass transport and exchange. Canal blocking strategies for hydrological restoration of degraded tropical peatlands in Central Kalimantan , Indonesia. In the s the Government of Indonesia derided to develop one million hectares of peatlands for agriculture in Central Kalimantan on the Island of Borneo.

The construction of thousands of kilometres of canals resulted in over-drainage and targets for agricultural production failed. Abandoned, the. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture including peatlands , energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors.

Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane CH4 and nitrous oxide N2O concentrations by a gas chromatography.

The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes.

The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in. Objectives of this study were to determine the proporsion of P. This study is conductedin Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan in Samples were microscopically positive malaria cases obtained by surveys and passive case findings.

Patients were also examined clinically and interviewed to investigate the history of infections. The results showed that among the samples examined, three samples 1. All of the three cases were infected locally, which consist of two in Central Kalimantan and one in South Kalimantan.

The cases in Central Kalimantan were the first finding of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria cases in the province. Clinical symptoms in two cases were mild but in another case was rather severe. Morphology of P. Further research is needed in order to find other spreading area of P.

Keywords : Plasmodium knowlesi, human, clinical symptoms, morphology, Central Kalimantan. AbstrakSampai tahun , empat kasus malaria Plamodium knowlesi pada manusia yang penularannya di sekitar hutan telah ditemukan di Kalimantan Selatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui besarnya proporsi P. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kalimantan Tengah dan Kalimantan Selatan pada tahun Sampel adalah kasus malaria positif mikroskopis yang diperoleh melalui survei dan penemuan kasus secara pasif.

Serapan darah pada kertas saring atau kerokan sediaan apus darah tebal diperiksa dengan. However, fire occurrence in the peatland areas was highly dependent on land cover type. Degraded PSF and all deforested peatland land cover types, including managed areas, in the two provinces were severely affected, demonstrating how difficult it is to protect even managed drained agricultural areas from unwanted fires during dry periods.

Our results thereby advocate rewetting and rehabilitation as the primary management option for highly fire prone degraded undeveloped peatland areas, whenever feasible, as a means to reduce fire risk during future dry episodes. Application of multivariate analysis to investigate the trace element contamination in top soil of coal mining district in Jorong, South Kalimantan , Indonesia.

Multivariate analysis is applied to investigate geochemistry of several trace elements in top soils and their relation with the contamination source as the influence of coal mines in Jorong, South Kalimantan. Pearson correlation is applied to specify the linear correlation among the elements. The elemental loading mostly affects the non-coal mining area, for instances the area near settlement and agricultural land use.

Moreover, the contamination source is classified into the areas that are influenced by the coal mining activity, the agricultural types, and the river mixing zone. Multivariate analysis could elucidate the elemental loading and the contamination sources of trace elements in the vicinity of coal mine area. On Reptiles from North Borneo. The following list is the catalogue of a collection of reptiles captured by Mr. Prakke in the neighbourhood of the Sandakan-bay N.

As Dr. Development of TGS methane sensor and SHT11 humidity and temperature sensor for measuring greenhouse gas on peatlands in south kalimantan , indonesia. The research was focused on development of data acquisition system to monitor the content of methane, relative humidity and temperature on peatlands in South Kalimantan , Indonesia. Methane is one of greenhouse gases that emitted from peatlands; while humidity and temperature are important parameters of microclimate on peatlands.

The content of methane, humidity and temperature are three parameters were monitored digitally, real time, continuously and automatically record by data acquisition systems that interfaced to the personal computer. ATMega module is a device to manage all part in measuring instrument.

To interface between measuring instrument and personal computer is maintained by Delphi 7. TGS methane gas sensor and SHT11 humidity and temperature sensor are calibrated to determine transfer function used to data communication between sensors and microcontroller and integrated into ATMega Microcontroller. The microcontroller maintained the voltage signal than interfaced it to liquid crystal displays and personal computer laptop to display result of the measurement.

Development of TGS methane sensor and SHT11 humidity and temperature sensor for measuring greenhouse gas on peatlands in South Kalimantan , indonesia. The microcontroller maintained the voltage signal than interfaced it to liquid crystal displays and personal computer laptop to display result of the. Full Text Available This research aims to describe the use of language code applied by the participants and to find out the factors influencing the choice of language codes.

This research is qualitative research that describe the use of language code in the cross married couples. The data are taken from the discourses about language code phenomena dealing with the cross- married couples, Banjarese- Javanese ethnics in Tanah Laut regency South Kalimantan , Indonesia. There are 23 data observed and recoded by the researcher based on a certain criteria. Tanah Laut regency is chosen as a purposive sample where this regency has many different ethnics so that they do cross cultural marriage for example between Banjarese- Javanese ethnics.

Findings reveal that mostly the cross married couple used code mixing and code switching in their conversation of daily activities. Code mixing is uttered by Javanese father or mother to their children. Meanwhile, code switching occurs when there is another factor or a new participant who join in the discourse. The influential factors are situational factors, the environment neighborhood, relative status, and ethnicity.

Survey on improvement in development of coal in Asia-Pacific region in fiscal Survey on optimization of coal transportation system in Kalimantan , Indonesia South Kalimantan State ; nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia Karimantan ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa Minami Karimantan shu.

Based on the June agreement with Indonesia on a comprehensive survey of the Kalimantan coal transportation system, plans for developing transportation infrastructures and coal mines were established, and a survey was carried out to realize efficient coal development and transportation. In proceeding with the future development of the South Kalimantan coal, it was made clear that the domestic Indonesian demand and export demand thereon can be fully expected, and latent supply capability thereto exists sufficiently.

However, although the latent supply capability is available, the coal transportation infrastructures are insufficient, hence new construction of railways and coal shipping ports is necessary. The present survey has prepared an LP model for the coal transportation infrastructures, and performed case studies on six coal transportation scenarios composed of potential existing or new roads, waterways, railways and coal shipping ports.

It was found promising economically that, for either case of domestic or export supply, Tg. Comparison of fire data from several different satellite sensors also reveals that fires detected in Kalimantan during appeared more numerous Figure 1 and burned over a longer period Figure 2 than fires that burned in late see discussion below.

We take the example of religious pluralism in South Kalimantan. Religious pluralism is a perspective of religious harmony. Diversity of Begonia Begoniaceae in Borneo — how many species are there? Full Text Available A total of species are currently named and described from Borneo Brunei - 16 species, Kalimantan — 5 species, Sabah — 41 species and Sarawak — 72 species. However, based on our survey of the Begonia collection in the Sarawak Herbarium, the un-named taxa about species significantly outnumber the named species.

The situation is probably the same for Sabah, so with many more new species than the 41 named ones at a conservative estimate the Sabah Begonia flora can be expected to exceed species. We can therefore expect the Begonia flora of Borneo to exceed species. Alpha-taxonomy on a large scale is needed to tackle the backlog of literally hundreds of new undescribed species. This research aims at comprehending the role of ulama in developing Banjar society of South Kalimantan. The author concludes that ulama plays traditional role, provided that they live in modern era.

Without considering the typology, ulama has brought the Banjarese society into unity. They have also taken important role in keeping up stability, harmony and diversity from various perspectives, interest, and social groups of Banjarese. It is also revealed that demographic and socio-cultural factors are not closely related with the role of ulama, except that of religiosity.

In Banjarese society, ulama is regarded as having high esteem position, due to their knowledge, good character, piety, and their concrete role in social development. In addition, due to their religiosity, their opinions on such fields as social transformation, modernization and development in South Kalimantan are positively responded. Full Text Available Most of the general public of service users have not understood the value of construction consultancy services.

This inhibits market opportunities in the private sector for construction consulting services particularly in South Kalimantan. The objective of the research is to create an appropriate marketing strategy for corporation construction consultancy services in South Kalimantan. This research is done by giving questionnaire to the service users and construction consulting firms in South Kalimantan. The result of the research are, a model of the marketing strategy of the construction consulting service, Strength-Opportunity strategy, grow and build strategy, service pricing strategy, and a basic strategy.

This is a collaboration between the marketing-mix and service quality. Full Text Available These days, many researches on traditional architecture of South Kalimantan focus merely on traditional settlements and houses. Particularly, the research on places of worship has been conducted in small numbers, and it is sometimes never publicized, especially in scientific magazine or journal.

Meanwhile, the construction of some new mosques in South Kalimantan has no longer concerned the local architecture. Traditional Banjarese Tribe is known as an islamic tribe. They used to be called Dayak Tribe since they had faith in traditional religions such as animism and dynamism. As Muslim people, they perform their prayers in a place of worship called mesigid mosque. The research applies the method of case study. From the analyses, it can be concluded that the traditional mosques of South Kalimantan have three kinds of room, which are palataran, praying area, and mihrab a chamber indicating the direction of Mecca.

Palataran is the porch or the terrace surrounding the mosque, while the praying area and mihrab are rectangular. Traditional mosques in South Kalimantan have their own entity which is formed by the plan of praying area and mihrab, as well as their three layered-roof. The roof in these mosques has a sharp angle 60o and an acute angle 20o. Both symbols are the symbols of identity and mythology of Dayak Tribe. Indonesian peatlands are globally one of the largest near-surface reserves of terrestrial organic carbon, with peat deposits of up to 20m thick and an estimated carbon storage of Gt.

The destructive fires in Indonesia during the exceptionally strong drought of late and early mark some of the largest peak emissions events in recorded history of global fires. Previous studies have established a non-linear negative correlation between fires and antecedent rainfall in Borneo , with ENSO-driven droughts being identified as the main cause of below-average rainfall events over the past decade or so.

However, while these studies suggest that this non-linear relationship is mediated by ignitions associated with land use and land cover change LULCC , they have not demonstrated it. A clear link between fires and logging in Borneo has been reported, but this work was restricted to eastern Kalimantan and the period The relationship between fires, emissions, rainfall and LULCC across the island of Borneo therefore remains to be examined using available fine resolution data over a multi-year period.

Using rainfall data, up-to-date peat maps and state-of-the art satellite sensor data to determine burnt area and deforestation patterns over the decade , we show at a pixel working resolution of 0. Fire activity is negatively and non-linearly correlated to rainfall mainly in pixels that have undergone a significant reduction in forest cover, and that the bigger the reduction, the stronger the correlation.

Such pixels occur overwhelmingly in southern Kalimantan. Full Text Available Eusideroxylon zwageri T et B yang dikenal dengan ulin termasuk salah satu jenis pohon asli pulau Kalimantan. Kayu besi Borneo ini telah digunakan oleh suku asli Kalimantan sejak ratusan tahun yang lalu terutama pada rumah tradisional seperti Betang di Kalimantan Tengah dan Lamin di Kalimantan Timur.

Sampai sekarang pemanfaatan ulin mencakup atap, lantai, kerangka jendela, jembatan, patung, ornament di depan bangunan tradisional dan kantor, turus tanaman merica dan lain-lain. Sayangnya penyebaran dan potensi di hutan alam menurun secara signifikan terutama pada tiga dekade belakangan ini dikarenakan pembalakan yang berlebihan dan kurang efektifnya penegakan hukum. Kepedulian dunia terkait dengan kelestarian jenis ini ditunjukkan melalui masuknya jenis ini dalam CITES.

Berbagai pertauran juga diterapan oleh pemerintah pusat dan daerah untuk menjaga kelestariannya. Makalah ini mencoba menyajikan beberapa aspek terkait dengan Eusideroxylon zwageri I yaitu penyebaran di alam, potensi, pemanfaatan kayu ulin, pengadaan bibit dan penanaman, masalah dan kebijakan yang diperlukan. Kebijakan tersebut meliputi penanaman ulin di hutan adat, hutan lindung, taman nasional dan areal bekas tempat tumbuh aslinya. Kewajiban menanam jenis pohon asli termasuk Eusideroxylon zwageri pada sebagian areal hutan tanaman industri HTI dan hutan tanaman lainnya untuk meningkatkan biodiversitas perlu didorong oleh pemerintah.

The forest for the trees: tuberculosis control efforts in west Kalimantan. The clinic's experience shows that an unconventional 'forests-for-health care' incentive programme can provide a powerful way to break the cycle that links poverty, poor health and environmental destruction around the park.

However, the challenges of preventing, diagnosing and treating tuberculosis in this setting remain considerable and success will still depend upon a multilateral collaborative approach. Full Text Available Saponin is a class of natural compounds that have activity that is strongly associated with utilization in pharmacy.

Exploration has been carried out against a number of secondary metabolite content of medicinal plants in East Kalimantan and some of them found to contain saponins. Plants were found to contain saponins and are considered potential Kokang leaf Lepisanthes amoena, Kesumbakeling leaf Bixa orellana, L, Belimbing Wuluh leaf Averrhoa bilimbi L. Tumbuhan-tumbuhan yang terbukti mengandung sponin dan dianggap potensial adalah daun Kokang Lepisanthes amoena, daun Kesumbakeling Bixa orellana, L, daun Belimbing Wuluh Averrhoa bilimbi L.

The purposes of this study were to assess the level of quality and genetic diversity, and to identify the origin of the confiscated individuals by molecular analysis. The original species used as a control were obtained from known areas in Java, Kalimantan , and Sumatera. The results of phylogenic tree analysis showed that 44 confiscated pangolins were from Kalimantan 24 individuals, from Sumatra seven individuals, and from Java 13 individuals.

As many as 19 haplotypes were found on the basis of their base substitutions consisting of nine from Kalimantan , seven from Java and three from Sumatra. ABSTRAK Tingginya tingkat perburuan trenggiling Manis javanica; Desmarest Indonesia untuk diperdagangkan secara illegal sebagai bahan dasar obat terutama di China, menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan populasi di alam. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat tingkat kualitas dan keragaman genetik trenggiling serta mengetahui asal usul satwa sitaan berdasarkan analisis molekuler.

Sebagai kontrol asal usul trenggiling sitaan digunakan sampel alam berdasarkan sebaran populasi yang diketahui pasti yang berasal dari Jawa, Kalimantan , dan Sumatera. Analisis molekuler menggunakan. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif. Nilai tukar nelayan yang diukur selama bulan nopember — pebruari Penelitian menggunakan formula Indeks Laspeyres yang dikembangkan dan pengujian dengan teori ekonomi kesejahteraan.

Sedangkan tingkat ekonomi kesejahteraan nelayan mengalami kenaikan. The research use descriptive method in valving that primary data were obtained by survey and secondary data oven collected from relevant government agencies. Exchange rate index of thratmen was measured during 4 months November — February Index formulation was developed Laspeyres the economic welfare of the fisherman.

Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis are documented from various locations along Borneo 's coast, including three sites in Sarawak, Malaysia, three sites in Sabah, Malaysia, three locations in Kalimantan , Indonesia and the limited coastal waters of the Sultanate of Brunei.

Observations in all these areas indicate a similar external morphology, which seems to fall somewhere between that documented for Chinese populations known as S. Sightings occur in shallow nearshore waters, often near estuaries and river mouths, and associations with Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris are frequently documented.

Population estimates exist for only two locations and sightings information throughout Borneo indicates that frequency of occurrence is rare and group size is usually small. Threats from fisheries by-catch and coastal development are present in many locations and there are concerns over the ability of these small and fragmented populations to survive.

The conservation and taxonomic status of humpback dolphins in Borneo remain unclear, and there are intriguing questions as to where these populations fit in our evolving understanding of the taxonomy of the genus. All rights reserved. Tetrastigma diepenhorstii Miq.

Rafflesiaceae in Borneo. Full Text Available Rafflesia tuan-mudae Becc. Rafflesiaceae is endemic to Borneo and was recorded from Sarawak and probably Kalimantan. Previous records showed that Tetrastigma rafflesiae Miq. Vitaceae is the only host plant for R. In this study the host plants were collected each time R. Out of 20 Tetrastigma specimens collected infected by R. Latiff while 6 belonged to T. Therefore, a new host for R.

Tropical peatland could be a source of greenhouse gases emission because it contains large amounts of soil carbon and nitrogen. However these emissions are strongly influenced by soil moisture conditions. Tropical climate is characterized typically by wet and dry seasons. Seasonal changes in the emission of carbon dioxide CO 2 , methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2 O were investigated over a year at three sites secondary forest, paddy field and upland field in the tropical peatland in South Kalimantan , Indonesia.

The amount of these gases emitted from the fields varied widely according to the seasonal pattern of precipitation, especially methane emission rates were positively correlated with precipitation. Converting from secondary forest peatland to paddy field tended to increase annual emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere from 1.

Full Text Available Dari tahun sampai dengan dilaksanakan penelitian epidemiologi malaria disuatu daerah hypo-endemis di Kalimantan Selatan. Fluktuasi kepadatan An. Dengan incidence rate dan data entomologis ini, dibuktikan bahwa penyemprotan rumah-rumah di Batutungku tidak efektif. Bahwa di kedua daerah incidence rate tiap tahun menurun, disebabkan oleh ''radical treatment' yang dimulai di kedua daerah sejak Oktober Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan , the Indonesian part of Borneo.

No data existed prior to the present study to substantiate these threats. We investigated the rates, spatial distribution and causes of conflict and hunting through an interview-based survey in the orangutan's range in Kalimantan , Indonesia. Between April and September , we interviewed respondents in villages to obtain socio-economic information, assess knowledge of local wildlife in general and orangutan encounters specifically, and to query respondents about their knowledge on orangutan conflicts and killing, and relevant laws.

This survey revealed estimated killing rates of between and animals killed in the last year, and between and animals killed per year on average within the lifetime of the survey respondents. These killing rates are higher than previously thought and are high enough to pose a serious threat to the continued existence of orangutans in Kalimantan.

Importantly, the study contributes to our understanding of the spatial variation in threats, and the underlying causes of those threats, which can be used to facilitate the development of targeted conservation management. Quantifying killing of orangutans and human-orangutan conflict in Kalimantan , Indonesia. Full Text Available Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan , the Indonesian part of Borneo. Full Text Available To know the use of traditional drugs in East Kalimantan and South Sulawesi which are still in use, a study was done in both areas in Using a questionnaire as basis an exploration is done by senior students in pharmacy and senior students of the medical school, with the supervision of the local health service and experts from the National Institute of Health Research and Development.

In the final report of the study no information is exposed on the drug components of traditional prescriptions. Prescriptions used in the ailments suffered in the last 2 weeks, were catagorized and analized. In East Kalimantan 58 prescriptions were recorded and prescriptions in South Sulawesi.

The genus of some plants in both areas are not common in general and needs identification. A registration and inventarisation of traditional drugs in other parts in Indonesia is necessary. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies.

Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia provide the largest known deposit of these so-called "headless" diamond deposits.

Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure UHP metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation.

Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area stones and in West Borneo Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds.

Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material.

The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Vacum penis pompa tentara ini sangat bagus untuk membesarkan otot otot pada alat vital. Sehingga jadi besar dan keras. Kenapa disebut vacuum pompa tentara, karena bentuk handle atau pemegangnya seperti bentuk pompa tentara untuk meledakkan bom, jadi bentuknya yang unik sehingga kami namakan pompa tentara.

Pompa penis ini sangat bagus memperlancar aliran darah ke penis, sehingga penis bisa terisi darah secara maksimal sehingga penis anda jadi besar. Penis akan di sedot dan di rangsang pembuluh darah nya, agar jadi membesar dan lebar. Dan otomatis nanti jadi membesar. Cocok dipakai oleh pria yang mengalami gangguan ereksi dan pertumbuhan pada penis nya, pompa ini bisa memperbesar pembuluh darah di batang alat vital sehingga aliran darah jadi lancar, kalau darah lancar maka penis anda akan jadi sehat dan mudah tegang, keras dan tahan lama.

Alat ini adalah original, telah di pakai banyak orang, dan hasil nya bagus, bisa membesarkan penis pada pria. Tidak menimbulkan efek samping. Alat vacuum penis ini kami beli dari luarnegeri. Tidak di jual bebas di dalam negeri. Termasuk juga Negara Negara di asia ini, termasuk di Indonesia, Malaysia dan negeri jiran lain nya. Oleh karena itu anda bisa gunakan alat pembesar penis ini untuk membantu anda mendapatkan ukuran yang anda harapkan.

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Dan akan sangat menambah daya kekuatan dari pada sperma, Yang akan membuat pagi hari terasa lebih segar setelah mempunyai kehidupan sex yang lebih baik dan sehat. Badan akan terasa lebih sehat dan tidak akan lagi menghadapi ejakulasi dini yang akan membuat hidup lebih baik dan percaya diri. Cara penggunaan: Memakai dengan perlahan-lahan lalu naikan batang kelamin keatas, sehingga terpisah antara zakar dan kepala alat kelamin.

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Belajar membuat website wordpress. Skripsi siap pakai. Pasang iklan gratis. Dan lain-lain. Program intensif terbaru bagaimana membentuk tubuh Anda lebih atletis hanya dalam waktu 12 minggu, hanya dengan berlatih 2 jam setiap dua hari. Ada selogan sebuah iklan minuman suplemen, Krempeng Mana Keren. Sepertinya selogan seperti itulah yang membuat saya mulai bermimpi dan mulai terobsesi memiliki tubuh atletis, maskulin dan macho. Jauh sebelum iklan tersebut muncul di televisi, saya sudah mulai terobsesi dengan body building, sudah mulai menjalani latihan namun belum terprogram alias asal-asalan namun sudah merasa sedikit pede, hingga saya menemukan sebuah program yang sangat efektif dari sebuah Gain Mass Program populer di Amerika.

Selama ini Anda mungkin beranggapan bahwa orang yang memiliki badan atletis dan berotot adalah mereka yang sangat sering berlatih beban berat setiap hari selama berjam-jam. Hmm, itupun yang ada di benak saya ketika sebelum menjalani program ini. Tetapi ternyata paham seperti itu adalah sangat salah besar. Faktanya, dengan meluangkan 2 jam setiap dua hari dengan metode pelatihan terjadwal, berkala dan bertahap diiringi dengan petunjuk asupan makanan yang seimbang, maka Anda tidak perlu berlelah-lelah menghabiskan banyak energi untuk berlatih namun Anda sudah merasakan hasilnya dalam waktu singkat, yaitu 12 minggu saja.

Anda tidak perlu berpenampilan seperti seorang atlit binaraga, tetapi bagaimana Anda dapat berpenampilan lebih maskulin, berotot proporsional, dari itu akan membuat Anda terlihat lebih menarik ketimbang Anda bertubuh ala kadarnya. Dengan beberapa bagian tubuh yang lebih menonjol, akan terlihat Anda lebih perkasa dan kelaki-lakian. Tidak dipungkiri bahwa ada bagian yang mana pria dan wanita menyukai bagian ini lebih menonjol.

Tetapi bedanya pada wanita cenderung mengandung lemak, sedang pada pria terdiri dari serat otot. Yaitu program intensif untuk membentuk tubuh Anda lebih atletis dan ideal dalam kurun waktu 12 minggu saja. Sebuah program fitnes yang sangat efektif dan terbukti sangat efisien untuk membuat tubuh Anda lebih maskulin dan atletis hanya dalam waktu 12 minggu yang dilengkapi dengan gambar dan foto untuk panduan latihan, maupun petunjuk komposisi makanan dan nutrisi Anda sehari-hari selama menjalani program.

Sebuah metode alami dan menyehatkan ketimbang Anda menggunakan Anabolic Steroid ataupun jenis obat-obatan lainnya yang berefek samping terhadap kesehatan jangka panjang Anda. Seperti gangguan pada jantung, ginjal dan liver. Mungkin Anda pernah mendengar tentang seorang bintang Hollywood, Arnold Schwarzenegger yang sempat dirawat karena mengalami gangguan liver akibat konsumsi steroid berlebihan.

Bisa juga sebagai tempat diskusi dan berbagi info seputar cewek bispak. Untuk informasinya silakan klik SEKS atau kunjungi alamat situs web berikut: seks. Apakah pasangan Anda salah satunya? Apakah Anda seorang pria atau wanita yang punya masalah dalam kehidupan seks? Berdasarkan temuan 5 seksolog terkemuka di Jakarta, Bali, Yogyakarta dan Surabaya, menyatakan bahwa sebagian besar orang ingin mendapatkan kehidupan seks yang lebih kaya dan lebih menyenangkan tetapi mereka tidak ada waktu untuk mempelajari caranya.

Atau mereka terlalu malu untuk membicarakannya. Ebook Rahasia Orgasme memberikan anjuran yang tepat untuk memecahkan masalah ini dan memperbaiki kualitas hubungan seksual Anda. Bagaimana meningkatkan dan mempertahankan rangsangan, menikmati orgasme yang lebih lama, berbicara dengan pasangan Anda tentang masalah yang sensitif, dan banyak lagi akan dibahas di dalam ebook ini.

Cukup mengejutkan memang banyak wanita tak puas dengan pelayanan pria pasangannya. Pernyataan ini bukanlah sekedar berita biasa. Berikut ini 5 seksolog terkemuka dari Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Surabaya dan Bali memberikan pendapatnya dikutip dari Majalah Kartini : 1.

Naek L. Tobing Jakarta. Namun tak semudah itu melakukan hubungan seks yang bisa mencapai puncak kenikmatan. Boyke Dian Nugraha,Sp. Faktor emosi, foreplay yang cukup dan rasa intim itu lebih penting dari pada sekedar gaya dan teknik. Inilah penyebab yang banyak dirasakan wanita. Semakin banyak pria yang tidak mampu berereksi dengan maksimal makin banyak pula wanita yang merasa tidak mengecap kepuasan.

Sayangnya, beberapa pasangan terutama pria tidak jarang menggunakan obat kuat yang dijual secara bebas. Padahal masalah seksual dan disfungsi ereksi adalah permasalahan yang harus dicari penyebab primernya. Hudi Winarso, M. Ada banyak faktornya. Wanita masih terkondisi budaya malu, takut-takut dan sejenisnya. Setelah lima tahun kedua barulah masalah lain muncul, di antaranya suami mengalami gangguan ereksi, yang membuatnya tak mampu melakukan penetrasi secara optimal.

Inilah penyebab ketidakpuasan pasangan dan dirinya sendiri. Pertanyaan tersebut tampaknya sama seperti apakah Anda ingin mendapatkan hadiah jutaan rupiah. Hampir setiap orang menginginkan kehidupan seksual yang lebih baik.

Meskipun telah baik, tapi ia ingin yang lebih baik. Gairah seksual memiliki kekuatan untuk membangkitkan semangat kita, tidak seperti perasaan lainnya, namun frustasi seksual juga dapat menjatuhkan semangat kita, tidak seperti perasaan lainnya. Kita menganggap seks sebagai sesuatu yang tinggi. Lewat Ebook Rahasia Orgasme ini dimaksudkan untuk membantu Anda atau pasangan suami-istri untuk memperbaiki kehidupan seksual.

Memang banyak ebook yang membahas masalah seks. Buku, video, dan artikel di majalah tentang seks menunjukkan betapa orang menginginkan dan mencari bantuan seksual. Tetapi, mengapa ebook ini berbeda dari ebook yang lainnya? Dalam Ebook Rahasia Orgasme, berisi lebih dari sekedar memberikan nasehat-nasehat yang tidak jelas, namun memberikan anjuran untuk memecahkan masalah dan memperbaiki kualitas kehidupan seksual Anda melalui cara tertentu.

Dalam tiap masalah, Anda akan menemukan definisi, contoh yang menggambarkan definisi atau komentar dari orang tentang masalah seksual tersebut, dan saran-saran. Dalam langkah sederhana, Anda akan belajar bagaimana memperlambat ejakulasi pada pria, meningkatkan rangsangan seksual kepada wanita, berbicara kepada pasangan Anda tentang masalah yang paling menyentuh, masalah seks oral, dan banyak lagi.

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Between April and September , we interviewed respondents in villages to obtain socio-economic information, assess knowledge of local wildlife in general and orangutan encounters specifically, and to query respondents about their knowledge on orangutan conflicts and killing, and relevant laws. This survey revealed estimated killing rates of between and animals killed in the last year, and between and animals killed per year on average within the lifetime of the survey respondents.

These killing rates are higher than previously thought and are high enough to pose a serious threat to the continued existence of orangutans in Kalimantan. Importantly, the study contributes to our understanding of the spatial variation in threats, and the underlying causes of those threats, which can be used to facilitate the development of targeted conservation management.

Quantifying killing of orangutans and human-orangutan conflict in Kalimantan , Indonesia. Full Text Available Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan , the Indonesian part of Borneo. Full Text Available To know the use of traditional drugs in East Kalimantan and South Sulawesi which are still in use, a study was done in both areas in Using a questionnaire as basis an exploration is done by senior students in pharmacy and senior students of the medical school, with the supervision of the local health service and experts from the National Institute of Health Research and Development.

In the final report of the study no information is exposed on the drug components of traditional prescriptions. Prescriptions used in the ailments suffered in the last 2 weeks, were catagorized and analized. In East Kalimantan 58 prescriptions were recorded and prescriptions in South Sulawesi. The genus of some plants in both areas are not common in general and needs identification. A registration and inventarisation of traditional drugs in other parts in Indonesia is necessary.

Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies. Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources.

The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia provide the largest known deposit of these so-called "headless" diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure UHP metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation.

Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area stones and in West Borneo Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation.

We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make.

Soil organic carbon stocks and changes upon forest regeneration in East Kalimantan - Indonesia. Imperata grassland is a common vegetation type in Kalimantan Indonesia , and other parts of South -East Asia. It indicates a high degree of degradation of the vegetation, and mostly occurs after slashing and burning of primary forest. Through secondary succession Imperata grassland is converted. Some Initial Observations from East Kalimantan. Sheil, D. Anthropogenic soils of the Amazon Basin Terra Preta, Terra Mulata reveal that pre-Colombian peoples made lasting improvements in the agricultural potential of nutrient-poor soils.

Some have argued that applying similar techniques could improve agriculture over much of the humid tropics, enhancing. Moving in a hierarchized landscape Changing border regimes in Central Kalimantan. Full Text Available Transnational mobility is a common feature among borderland communities. Central Borneo has been a relatively fluid and open riverine-based socio-cultural and economic space since the arrival of colonial states, without much interference from the establishment of international boundaries on local cross-border mobility practices.

This applies to the Kenyah, a cluster of related ethnic groups occupying the Apokayan plateau in East Kalimantan Indonesia, who are historically an integral part of the socio-cultural and economic fabric throughout the major riverine systems of Sarawak Malaysia.

Despite the relative absence of states, Central Borneo has not escaped the onslaught of social differentiation embedded in nation-state identities. Full Text Available Morphologically, Singkawang and adjacent area consist of zones beaches, undulating hills, and steep hills. Granitic rocks and alluvium as a based rock of Singkawang coasts. Generally, Singkawang coasts was developed for coastal farms, fishery pond, and beach resorts, where most of these area have been eroded.

Geological and physical oceanography condition are the aspects that build the characteristics of Singkawang coast. Human activities also play an important role in managing the equilibrium and dynamics of this coastal region. This research is to determine the dynamics and coastline changes of Singkawang coasts based on the characteristics of the coastal element and sediment. The Cape Bajau - Cape Banjar is relatively stable due to headlands of this coast is characterized by igneous rocks which resistant to the erosion.

Modern shorelines of the Singkawang coast might be as a shallow marine environment which were occurred thousands years ago pre-Recent. The high of sedimentation process is generated by global sea level change, where was occurred at that time, and might be changed the area become part of the mainland coast of Singkawang. Keywords: coastal dynamics, erosion, sedimentation, Singkawang, West Kalimantan.

Remotely sensed forest cover loss shows high spatial and temporal variation across Sumatera and Kalimantan , Indonesia The Indonesian islands of Sumatera and Kalimantan the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo are a center of significant and rapid forest cover loss in the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity conservation, and local livelihoods.

The aim of our research was to analyze and interpret annual trends of forest cover loss for different sub-regions of the study area. The total forest cover loss for Sumatera and Kalimantan was 5. At least 6. An additional The overall trend of forest cover loss increased until and decreased thereafter. The trends for Sumatera and Kalimantan were distinctly different, driven primarily by the trends of Riau and Central Kalimantan provinces, respectively.

This analysis shows that annual mapping of forest cover change yields a clearer picture than a one-time overall national estimate. The improved spatio-temporal detail of forest change monitoring products will make it possible to target policies and projects in meeting this commitment. Breitfeld, H. Metamorphic rocks in West Sarawak are poorly exposed and studied. They were previously assumed to be pre-Carboniferous basement but had never been dated.

The metamorphic rocks are associated with Triassic acid and basic igneous rocks, which indicate widespread magmatism. U-Pb dating of zircons from volcaniclastic sediments of the Sadong and Kuching Formations confirms contemporaneous volcanism. The magmatic activity is interpreted to represent a Triassic subduction margin in westernmost West Sarawak with sediments deposited in a forearc basin derived from the magmatic arc at the Sundaland-Pacific margin.

West Sarawak and NW Kalimantan are underlain by continental crust that was already part of Sundaland or accreted to Sundaland in the Triassic. They are interpreted to indicate resumption of subduction which led to deposition of volcaniclastic sediments and widespread magmatism. U-Pb ages from detrital zircons in the Cretaceous Pedawan Formation are similar to those from the Schwaner granites of NW Kalimantan , and the Pedawan Formation is interpreted as part of a Cretaceous forearc basin containing material eroded from a magmatic arc that extended from Vietnam to west Borneo.

The youngest U-Pb ages from zircons in a tuff layer from the uppermost part of the Pedawan Formation indicate that volcanic activity continued until c. A note on the occurrence of a crayback stalagmite at Niah Caves, Borneo. Measuring some 65 cm in length and 18 cm in height, this deposit is elongate in the direction of the dominant wind and thus oriented towards the natural tunnel entrance.

It shows the classic humpbacked long profile, made up of small transverse segments or plates, in this case the tail extending towards the entrance. The dark blue-green colour down the centre suggests that cyanobacterial growth follows the track of the wind-deflected roof drip. The dry silty cave sediment provides material for accretion onto the biological mat. This is the only example known from Borneo and one of the very few known from outside of Australia. Full Text Available Activated carbons ACs were prepared from biomass of Borneo island wood charcoal, peat, and coconut husk by using an electricity—free furnace, of which the energy source was exclusively wood charcoal.

This furnace was comprised of two parts, an inner vessel equipped with water inlet for steam activation and an outer shell as a heating part for the inner vessel. The inside temperature of the inner vessel was able to reach over oC. A mobile apparatus for water purification was newly designed and fabricated with the resultant AC, together with a white quartz sand, which is called keranggas in Kalimantan.

Thus, the newly designed furnace and purification apparatus were shown to be highly effective tools to produce a promising agent for water purification and to produce clarified water without use of electricity, respectively. Sigatoka of banana caused by Mycospherella sp. Resistant variety is considered a promising approach for sigatoka disease management.

This study was aimed to evaluate the resistance of local banana cultivars from South Kalimantan against sigatoka disease. The fungus was isolated from leaves of Kapas cultivar showing severe symptoms of sigatoka disease, onto potato dextrose agar medium. The isolate was then confirmed as Mycosphaerella sp. A total of km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof km with reflection seismics. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere.

We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the continental slope land- ward of the Trough, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The characteristic pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and the carbon- ates which are observed all over the Dangerous Grounds can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate.

The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anoma- lies. We suspect that the volcanic activity coincided with the collision of Borneo and the Dangerous Grounds in middle or late Miocene time.

The emplacement of an al- lochtonous terrane on top of the extended continental lithosphere could be explained by overthrusting as a result of the collision or it could be related to gravity sliding following a broad uplift of NW Borneo at the same time. People and forests in East Kalimantan. Investigators found that farmers vary in their reason for practicing shifting cultivation of logging and agriculture, in their intensity of farming, and in the amount of damage they caused forests in their practices.

Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies.

We develop future fire emissions inventories from — for Sumatra and Kalimantan Indonesian Borneo to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model.

We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan , which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two.

Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested intact or logged peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations.

Marlier, Miriam E. We develop future fire emissions inventories from for Sumatra and Kalimantan Indonesian Borneo to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested intact or logged peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and.

Borneo Vortices: A case study and its relation to climatology. Borneo vortices BVs develop over the South China Sea and are main drivers for the formation of deep convection and heavy rainfall in East Malaysia. We present a case study of a cold-surge-induced BV during January in which the export of potential energy lead to a strengthening of the subtropical jet.

Potential vorticity PV and water vapour analyses confirm a significant impact of the BV on upper tropospheric composition. Dry, high PV air is found far below hPa in the vicinty of the vortex. Using a PV threshold analysis of ERA-Interim data we construct a climatological composite of similar events and characterise the thermal, dynamical and composition structure of a 'typical' BV.

We note the preferential formation of BVs during ENSO cold conditions and show that two effects contribute to the formation of the dry upper layer above a BV: Air is vertically transported upwards in the BV whilst precipitating and the large scale flow in which the BV is embedded advect dry, ozone rich air from the equatorial TTL over the BV. As consequences, pregnant mother, lactating mother and children do not eat the taboo foods so that it can reduce their food intake and finally it can decrease their nutritional status.

The objectives of this study are 1 to identify taboo foods, 2 to identify reasons of taboo food and 3 to improve basic nutrition knowledge through training on food and nutrition. A sample of size 36 households was drawn randomly from household population of size The households population is household farmer who are beneficiary of Special Program for Food Security, Food and Agriculture Organization. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and presented in one way table. Results show that groups which had many food taboo were pregnant woman group and lactating mother group.

There are 7 taboo foods for pregnant woman and 11 taboo foods for lactating mother. Some taboo foods for pregnant women are ice, twin banana, young coconut, coconut water, young pineapple and fish. Some taboo foods for lactating mother are egg, fresh fish, fish, sugar, salt, jackfruit, fat food, hot food, etc. Keywords: taboo food, food intake, nutrition knowledge. Several gem quality diamond deposits are found in paleo-alluvial deposits across Borneo.

The source of the diamonds and their origin are enigmatic. They could have formed in Borneo and be derived from local sources, or they could be related to diamond deposits in NW Australia, and carried with the Southwest Borneo Block after it rifted from Australia in the Late Jurassic. We collected U-Pb isotopic data from detrital zircons from the Cempaka alluvial diamond deposit in southeast Borneo.

Two thirds of the zircons that were dated crystallized between 75 Ma and Ma. All of the Cretaceous zircons are angular, euhedral grains with minor evidence of mechanical abrasion. Considering their age and morphology they were likely derived from the nearby Schwaner Granites. The Triassic and older grains are rounded to semi-rounded and were likely derived from Australia before Borneo rifted from Gondwana.

Some of the zircons have ages that resemble those of the Merlin and Argyle diamond deposits of Australia. The diamonds themselves have delicate resorption features and overgrowths that would potentially be destroyed with prolonged transport. Geochemical data collected from the diamonds implies they were associated with lamproite intrusions. Exposure of the source after the Late Cretaceous led to diamond accumulation in river systems that flowed from the Schwaner Mountains.

Seasonal forecasting of fire over Kalimantan , Indonesia. Spessa, A. Large-scale fires occur frequently across Indonesia, particularly in the southern region of Kalimantan and eastern Sumatra. They have considerable impacts on carbon emissions, haze production, biodiversity, health, and economic activities.

In this study, we demonstrate that severe fire and haze events in Indonesia can generally be predicted months in advance using predictions of seasonal rainfall from the ECMWF System 4 coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Based on analyses of long, up-to-date series observations on burnt area, rainfall, and tree cover, we demonstrate that fire activity is negatively correlated with rainfall and is positively associated with deforestation in Indonesia.

There is a contrast between the southern region of Kalimantan high fire activity, high tree cover loss, and strong non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire and the central region of Kalimantan low fire activity, low tree cover loss, and weak, non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire. Overall, our findings point to a high potential for using a more physical-based method for predicting fires with several months lead time in the tropics rather than one based on indexes only.

We argue that seasonal precipitation forecasts should be central to Indonesia's evolving fire management policy. Discursive barriers and cross-scale forest governance in Central Kalimantan , Indonesia. Full Text Available Students of social-ecological systems have emphasized the need for effective cross-scale governance.

We theorized that discursive barriers, particularly between technical and traditional practices, can act as a barrier to cross-scale collaboration. We argue that the complexities of bridging local land management practices and technical approaches to greenhouse gas emissions reduction and carbon offsetting create barriers to cross-scale collaboration.

We found that discursive divides were associated with a decreased probability of collaboration between organizations and that organizations headquartered outside the province were less likely to collaborate with organizations headquartered in the province. We conclude that bridging discursive communities presents a chicken-and-egg problem for cross-scale governance of social-ecological systems.

In precisely the situations where it is most important, when bridging transnational standards with local knowledge and land management practices, it is the most difficult. Red hot chili pepper. A new brightly-coloured olive and red species of microhylid frog of the genus Calluella Stoliczka is described from the upper elevations of Gunung Penrissen and the Matang Range, Sarawak, East Malaysia Borneo.

Calluella capsa, new species, is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL up to The new species is the eighth species of Calluella to be described, and the fourth known from Borneo. A preliminary phylogeny of Calluella and its relatives is presented, and the new taxon compared with congeners from Malaysia and other parts of south -east Asia. Untuk mengetahui seberapa besar ketimpangan pendapatan digunakan Indeks Williamson dan Indeks Entropi Theil,.

Berdasarkan indeks Wiliamson menunjukkan bahwa selama tahun sampai dengan terdapat ketimpangan pembanguan antar kabupaten di Kalimantan Timur sebesar 0. Sedangkan dari hitungan Entropi Theil menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata selama tahun sampai dengan terdapat ketimpangan pendapatan sebesar Setelah dilakukan analisis Kuznets menunjukkan bahwa di Kalimantan Timur selama tahun sampai dengan berlaku hukum Kuznets. This study aims to find out the development and income inequality inter regency in East Kalimantan and prove whether the inverted U hypothesis applied in the East Kalimantan.

To find out how much income inequality, the writer used Williamson and Theil's Entropy Index. Based on Williamson index, it indicates that there is income inequality inter regency in East Kalimantan during to , at 0.

Whereas Entropy Theil calculation shows that on average during to , there was income inequality by Meanwhile, Kuznets analysis shows that Kuznets law applied in East Kalimantan during to Unravelling the stratigraphy and sedimentation history of the uppermost Cretaceous to Eocene sediments of the Kuching Zone in West Sarawak Malaysia , Borneo. The sedimentary successions in the basins are part of the Kuching Supergroup that extends into Kalimantan. The uppermost Cretaceous Maastrichtian to Lower Eocene Kayan Group forms the sedimentary deposits directly above a major unconformity, the Pedawan Unconformity, which marks the cessation of subduction-related magmatism beneath SW Borneo and the Schwaner Mountains, due to termination of the Paleo-Pacific subduction.

The successions consist of the Kayan and Penrissen Sandstones and are dominated by fluvial channels, alluvial fans and floodplain deposits with some deltaic to tidally-influenced sections in the Kayan Sandstone. In the late Early or early Middle Eocene, sedimentation in this basin ceased and a new basin, the Ketungau Basin, developed to the east. This change is marked by the Kayan Unconformity. Upsequence, the Silantek Formation is dominated by floodplain and subsidiary fluvial deposits.

The Bako-Mintu Sandstone, a potential lateral equivalent of the Silantek Formation, is formed of major fluvial channels. Paleocurrent measurements show river systems were complex, but reveal a dominant southern source. This suggests uplift of southern Borneo initiated in the region of the present-day Schwaner Mountains from the latest Cretaceous onwards. Additional sources were local sources in the West Borneo province, Mesozoic melanges to the east and potentially the Malay Peninsula.

The Ketungau Group also includes reworked deposits of the Kayan Group. The sediments of the Kuching Supergroup are predominantly. The focus of investigations was on the deep water areas. The margin looks like a typical accretionary margin and was presumably formed during the subduction of a proto South China Sea. Presently, no horizontal movements between the two plates are being observed. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere which is characterised by a pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and a carbonate platform of Early Oligocene to Early Miocene age.

We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the Sabah Trough and the adjacent continental slope, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The tectonic pattern of the Dangerous Grounds' extended continental crust can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anomalies.

Based on the new data we propose the following scenario for the development of the NW Sabah continental margin: Seafloor spreading in the present South China Sea started at about 30 Ma in the Late Oligocene. The spreading process separated the Dangerous Grounds area from the SE Asian continent and ceased in late Early Miocene when the oceanic crust of the proto South China Sea was fully subducted in eastward direction along the Borneo -Palawan Trough.

Genomic structure of the native inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo suggests complex human population history in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia SEA is enriched with a complex history of peopling.

Malaysia, which is located at the crossroads of SEA, has been recognized as one of the hubs for early human migration. We showed that the Negritos from Peninsular Malaysia shared a common ancestor with the East Asians, but exhibited some level of gene flow from South Asia, while the North Borneo populations exhibited closer genetic affinity towards East Asians than the Malays. Substantial Neanderthal ancestry was confirmed in our genomes, as was observed in other East Asians. However, no significant difference was observed, in terms of the proportion of Denisovan gene flow into these native inhabitants from Malaysia.

Judging from the similar amount of introgression in the Southeast Asians and East Asians, our findings suggest that the Denisovan gene flow may have occurred before the divergence of these populations and that the shared similarities are likely an ancestral component. Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan. Full Text Available Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value.

Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them 20 genera were epiphytic orchids and 8 species 7 genera were terrestrial orchids. Plant diversity after rain-forest fires in Borneo.

The fires were the most extensive yet. The post-fire situation was studied in detail by field assessments and high-resolution SAR-images. My results show that rain forests are. Montane pollen from the Tertiary of NW. In NW. Borneo thick series of Tertiary sediments occur which are rich in fossil pollen and spores. The majority of these plant microfossils were derived from the various types of tropical lowland vegetation such as mangrove Muller, , mixed peat swamp forest and mixed Dipterocarp forest.

Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo. During two field campaigns OP3 and ACES , which ran in Borneo in , we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest.

Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric Coelostegia montana, a new species of Bombacaceae from Borneo. Soegeng Reksodihardjo , in his revision of the genus recognizes five species. Since Soegeng's work no attempt at a revision has been made and no new species have been described. How Unilever palm oil suppliers are burning up Borneo.

New evidence shows expansion by Unilever palm oil suppliers is driving species extinction in Central Kalimantan , and fuelling climate change. In November , Greenpeace released 'Cooking the Climate', an page report summarizing the findings of a two-year investigation that revealed how the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel companies were driving the wholesale destruction of Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands through growing palm oil consumption.

This follow-up report provides further evidence of the expansion of the palm oil sector in Indonesia into remaining rainforests, orang-utan habitat and peatlands in Kalimantan. It links the majority of the largest producers in Indonesia to Unilever, probably the largest palm oil corporate consumer in the world.

Bird species and traits associated with logged and unlogged forest in Borneo. The ecological consequences of logging have been and remain a focus of considerable debate. In this study, we assessed bird species composition within a logging concession in Central Kalimantan , Indonesian Borneo. Within the study area approximately km2 a total of individuals of bird species were recorded. Our goal was to identify associations between species traits and environmental variables. This can help us to understand the causes of disturbance and predict whether species with given traits will persist under changing environmental conditions.

Logging, slope position, and a number of habitat structure variables including canopy cover and liana abundance were significantly related to variation in bird composition. In addition to environmental variables, spatial variables also explained a significant amount of variation.

However, environmental variables, particularly in relation to logging, were of greater importance in structuring variation in composition. Environmental change following logging appeared to have a pronounced effect on the feeding guild and size class structure but there was little evidence of an effect on restricted range or threatened species although certain threatened species were adversely affected. For example, species such as the terrestrial insectivore Argusianus argus and the hornbill Buceros rhinoceros, both of which are threatened, were rare or absent in recently logged forest.

In contrast, undergrowth insectivores such as Orthotomus atrogularis and Trichastoma rostratum were abundant in recently logged forest and rare in unlogged forest. Logging appeared to have the strongest negative effect on hornbills, terrestrial insectivores, and canopy bark-gleaning insectivores while moderately affecting canopy foliage-gleaning insectivores and frugivores, raptors, and large species in general. In contrast, undergrowth insectivores responded positively to logging while most understory guilds showed little pronounced effect.

Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan , Indonesia. Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change.

Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan , Indonesian Borneo. Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings. River Plumes in Sunglint, Sarawak, Borneo. The sunglint pattern along the coast of Sarawak 3.

The fresh water lens boundry between fresh and sea water overides the saline and more dense sea water and oils, both natural and man made, collect along the convergence zones and dampen wave action. As a result, the smoother sea surface appears bright in the sunglint pattern. Full Text Available Permasalahan kebakaran hutan di berbagai propinsi di Indonesia terutama di Kalimantan Barat dan Sumatera Selatan mulai marak seiring dengan meningkatnya laju penebangan hutan serta tingginya tekanan penduduk akan pemenuhan kebutuhan hidup melalui sumber daya kawasan hutan.

Kebakaran hutan berpengaruh terhadap lingkungan berupa penurunan kualitas udara. Untuk mengetahui dampak kebakaran hutan terhadap karakterisitik kimia air hujan dan kondisi partikulat di Pontianak dan Palembang dilakukan analisa parameter anion, kation, dan pH air hujan serta Suspended Particulate Matter SPM selama periode hingga Dari hasil kajian diketahui bahwa kenaikan jumlah titik api baik di daerah Kalimantan Barat dan Sumatera Selatan diiringi oleh kenaikan konsentrasi deposisi asam dan SPM beberapa saat kemudian.

Baik di Pontianak dan Palembang, kenaikan titik api diiringi dengan kenaikan konsentrasi SPM dengan koefisien korelasi masing-masing 0, dan 0, Forest fire which occurs in many provinces in Indonesia especially in West Kalimantan and South Sumatera increases along with the high and rapid. Badak field, located in the delta of mahakam river, in east kalimantan , is a gas producer. Badak field is the main gas supplier to bontang LNG and gas is exported to japan, south korea and taiwan, as well as utilized for the main feed to the east kalimantan fertilizer plant.

To provide the gas demand, field development as well as exploration wells are continued. Full Text Available Rijoq, a Dayak Benuaq vocal music, has been passed down from generation to generation through oral tradition for hundreds of years. When and how it was founded, developed and preserved in the Dayak community remains questionable. But according to some research done by scholars, Rijoq has its origin from Dayak Bawo, a tribe living in the borderlines between Central, South , and East Kalimantan.

Rijoq is normally performed during festivities, such as: initiation, reconciliation, menugal rice planting and potong kerbau buffalo slaughtering. On the one hand, it speaks about the horizontal relationship—human beings and their fellows, and human beings and its nature—; and on the other hand, the vertical relationship—human beings with their Creator. The primary concern of doing this research is to preserve Rijoq as written and recorded documents. But this paper is not intended to discuss these five kinds of Rijoq.

Isiq Asekng Sookng Bawe is chosen as it is the oldest and the most difficult Rijoq among the rest. The following pages contain an enumeration of the lizards collected in Borneo by the Dutch Borneo -Expedition, of which expedition Mr. Nieuwenhuis during his travels in the interior of this island. The collections made. Clustering and genetic differentiation of the normocyte binding protein nbpxa of Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysia Borneo.

The zoonotic malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has become an emerging threat to South East Asian countries particular in Malaysia. A recent study from Sarawak Malaysian Borneo discovered two distinct normocyte binding protein xa Pknbpxa types of P. In the present study, the Pknbpxa of clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah Malaysian Borneo were investigated for the presence of Pknbpxa types and natural selection force acting on the gene.

The Pknbpxa sequences of P. Polymorphism, genetic diversity and natural selection of Pknbpxa sequences were analysed using DNAsp v 5. Phylogentics of Pknbpxa sequences was analysed using MrBayes v3. The pairwise F ST indices were used to determine the genetic differentiation between the Pknbpxa types and was calculated using Arlequin 3. Analyses of the sequences revealed Pknbpxa dimorphism throughout Malaysia indicating co-existence of the two types Type-1 and Type-2 of Pknbpxa.

More importantly, a third type Type 3 closely related to Type 2 Pknbpxa was also detected. This third type was found only in the isolates originating from Peninsular Malaysia. Negative natural selection was observed, suggesting functional constrains within the Pknbpxa types. This study revealed the existence of three Pknbpxa types in Malaysia. A third type which was specific only to samples originating from Peninsular Malaysia was discovered. Further genetic.

The study was conducted by Survey. The study was conducted in August through October Results showed that: 1 The level of technology used in the construction of the ship is still relatively low , the equipment used is still using non- electronic equipment ie axes, saws, chisels, pegs, hammer, machetes, bacci, measuring instruments, planers. Only the use of an electric drill workmanship.

The level of technology in the construction of timber ships has not been completed by the calculation of shipping architecture and ship design and construction drawings ; 2 type of wood used is Ulin wood, Alaban, Bengkirai, Bungur and Meranti which have a high degree of strength and resistant to attack by marine organisms; 3 Stages of development of traditional boats to large ships began with the manufacture of the hull, keel assembly to the deck and transom beam.

As for the small boat begins with the manufacture of the vessel tree seedlings. The next stage is good for big ships and small ships are mounting Linggi bow and stern, leather installation vessel up to half the height of the ship, Installation joist left and right, galar installation, installation of ship skin entirely to sheer, sheer installation, flooring installation deck, pemakalan , rig manufacturing of large vessels and final are painting.

We collected two specimens of an undescribed species of Lygosoma from pitfall traps in an urban rainforest in Kuching and from the base of a forested hill in western Sarawak, East Malaysia. The new species is diagnosable from all south -east Asian congeners by morphological characters, and most closely resembles Lygosoma herberti from the Thai-Malay Peninsula.

The new species shows substantial molecular divergence from its closest relatives in two protein-coding genes, one mitochondrial ND1 and one nuclear R35 that we sequenced for several south -east Asian congeners. We describe the new species on the basis of this distinct morphology and genetic divergence. It is the third species of Lygosoma known from Borneo , and highlights the continuing rise in lizard species diversity on the island.

In addition, the discovery of this species from a small urban rainforest underscores the importance of preserving intact rainforest areas of any size in maintaining species diversity. Sediment distributions in deep sea influence the benthic community structure and thus play an important role in shaping the marine ecosystem.

Therefore, this study was carried out to analyze the benthic sediment profile in an area beyond 12 nautical miles off the coast of Sarawak, southern SCS. The total organic matter TOM contents were determined and subjected to dry and wet sieving methods for particle size analysis.

Three new species of Merizocotyle Cerfontaine, Monogenea: Monocotylidae from the nasal tissues of dasyatid rays collected off Malaysian and Indonesian Borneo. Three new species of Merizocotyle Cerfontaine, Monogenea: Monocotylidae are described from the nasal tissues of stingrays collected off Borneo. Merizocotyle macrostrobus n. This species can be distinguished from the other members of the genus by the morphology of the sclerotised male copulatory organ, which is long with many twists and loops.

The vaginae of this species are also long and looped. Merizocotyle papillae n. It is distinguished from the other species of Merizocotyle by the morphology of the male copulatory organ, which is a sclerotised tube that expands slightly and then tapers at the distal end, and by the presence of papillae on the dorsal edge of the haptor.

Merizocotyle rhadinopeos n. Full Text Available Community development comdev is a form of corporate social responsibility program to increase community welfare. On the other side, comdev also aims to minimize the impact arising from mining activities. The present study aims to analyze the benefit of comdev and to calculate comdev contribution to increase community welfare.

The result show that benefit of comdev was perceived by community in Tanah Bumbu, South Kalimantan. Comdev also contributes positively to increase human resource development in Tanah Bumbu, but comdev not enough to compensate for the negative impact of mining especially enviromental issues. Cryptocoryne aura Araceae , a new species from West Kalimantan , Indonesia. It differs from other Cryptocoryne species primarily by having a transparent, ciliate membrane along the leaf margin and a short spathe with a yellow, forward-twisted limb.

It has Full Text Available Drwan upon three filters of political econmic analysis of mass media, namely concentrated ownership, advertising and the dynamism of audience, this article uncover a local press in Kalimantan. For the sake gaining maximal profit they fail to perform as watch dog and safeguarding moral idealism. Co-infection patterns of intestinal parasites in arboreal primates proboscis monkeys, Nasalis larvatus in Borneo.

Full Text Available Non-human primates of South -East Asia remain under-studied concerning parasite epidemiology and co-infection patterns. Simultaneously, efforts in conservation demand knowledge of parasite abundance and biodiversity in threatened species. The Endangered proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus, a primate flagship species for conservation in Borneo , was investigated in the present study. Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the greatest threats to bachelor and harem groups of this folivorous colobine.

Designed as a follow-up study, prevalence and co-infection status of intestinal parasites from N. For the first time, the intestinal parasite co-infection patterns were examined using quantitative analyses. Overall, Five helminth groups were detected: 1 trichurids On average, an individual was co-infected with two different groups. Significant positive associations were found for co-infections of trichurids with strongyles and S. This study shows a high prevalence of various gastrointestinal helminths with potential transmission pathways primarily related to soil and with zoonotic relevance in wild proboscis monkeys in their remaining natural habitats.

Observed positive associations of trichurids with strongyles and Strongyloides spp. Similarly, positive associations between Strongyloides and Ascaris were found, both of which typically occur predominantly in juvenile hosts. Borneo : The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid. Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products.

In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell.

Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia EU in It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production.

People's perceptions about the importance of forests on Borneo. Full Text Available We ascertained villagers' perceptions about the importance of forests for their livelihoods and health through 1, reliably answered interviews of mostly male respondents from villages in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo. Variation in these perceptions related to several environmental and social variables, as shown in classification and regression analyses.

Overall patterns indicated that forest use and cultural values are highest among people on Borneo who live close to remaining forest, and especially among older Christian residents. Support for forest clearing depended strongly on the scale at which deforestation occurs. Deforestation for small-scale agriculture was generally considered to be positive because it directly benefits people's welfare. Large-scale deforestation e.

The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Our study is unique in its geographic and trans-national scale.

Our findings enable the development of maps of forest use and perceptions that could inform land use planning at a range of scales. Incorporating perspectives such as these could significantly reduce conflict over forest resources and ultimately result in more equitable development processes.

We ascertained villagers' perceptions about the importance of forests for their livelihoods and health through 1, reliably answered interviews of mostly male respondents from villages in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food. Full Text Available Abstract. Finding of local food sources to enhance food security areas. This study focuses on the characteristics of growth Dayak Borneo yam observation, toxic substances and detoxification techniques development of non nutritional.

The objective of the research was to find out a more concrete picture, as well as comparing it with Java yam non nutritional components as a basis for further exploration of alternative food. Observations indicate that the plant growth of Dayak Borneo yam had specific characteristics, and can be grown in intercropping with other crops. Yam tubers have negative image due to the toxins contained by this commodity, as well as technology management detoxification and processing of yam products that have not been controlled by the community.

But based on the results of physical and chemical detoxification, indicates that the Dayak Borneo yam can be exploited further as food. Dayak Borneo yam need to be developed modification process in raw materials of Dayak Borneo yam as modified starch through fermentation techniques which also intended to obtain intermediate product from which Dayak Borneo yam has a larger functionality as a food ingredient. There are various Malay communities in West Kalimantan , which can be divided into two broad categories: 1 Malay migrants from outside Kalimantan West Kalimantan or contemporary Malays and 2 local Malays or native Malays who are considered as indigenous Malays.

This paper aims to reconstruct the dynamics of Malay cult This study aimed to determine TBA perceptions about the partnership with midwives in assisting child birth at villages. It was an observational study with a cross sectional approach.

The perception of TBAs on partnership with midwives were collected by interview using questioners. In the partnership midwives provide more services and nursing at deliveries, whereas the traditional birth attendants gave more post delivery services in the post delivery period. TBAs responsed that the health services by the midwives and their skill were good. The expenses for assisting birth was relatively cheap in both provinces.

Therefore, TBAs and midwives partnership has to be improved since early pregnancy to delivery, post delivery services and nursing of babies, to prevent infant and maternal deaths. Ikan betok di bagi menjadi dua stok populasi yaitu populasi rawa monoton dan pasang surut serta stok tadah hujan.

Untuk meningkatkan keragaman genetik ikan betok, dilakukan dengan cara introduksi individu-individu baru yang memiliki keragaman genetik yang lebih tinggi kedalam populasi lokal, restocking dan membuat kawasan suaka yang dilindungi oleh Dinas Perikanan setempat bersama-sama dengan masyarakat di sekitar perairan rawa tersebut.

The research was conducted using climbing perch samples originated from the swampy waters of the southern Borneo , and the objektive of this study to investigate the genetic diversity and the conservation aspect using mtDNA amplification method. The results of the analysis of D-Loop mtDNA of climbing perch showed that, the analysis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium population ranged from 0. A study on the result of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker undertaken on the Eocene Mandai Group was able to assess hydrocarbon potential of the Paleogene fine sediments in the frontier basin, especially West Kalimantan area.

Mudstone facies comprises shale, claystone, and coal. Seven samples of Eocene fine sediments collected from East Ketungau Basin were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolisis and three samples for biomarker to evaluate their hydrocarbon potential. Based on that result, the fine sediments of Mandai Group are included into a gas prone source rock potential with poor to fair categories. Moreover Tmax values vary from o C to o C. Based on Tmax and biomarker analyses, the maturity of the sediments is situated within immature to mature level.

The fine sediments of Mandai Group were deposited in a terrestrial to marine environment under anoxic to sub-oxic condition. Reconciling forest conservation and logging in Indonesian Borneo. Full Text Available Combining protected areas with natural forest timber concessions may sustain larger forest landscapes than is possible via protected areas alone. However, the role of timber concessions in maintaining natural forest remains poorly characterized.

These deforestation rates explain little about the relative performance of the different land use categories under equivalent conversion risks due to the confounding effects of location. When location effects were accounted for, deforestation rates in timber concessions and protected areas were not significantly different Mean difference: 0. Property tanpa uang. Kursus belajar bahasa Inggris. Barang elektronik gratis.

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Ada selogan sebuah iklan minuman suplemen, Krempeng Mana Keren. Sepertinya selogan seperti itulah yang membuat saya mulai bermimpi dan mulai terobsesi memiliki tubuh atletis, maskulin dan macho. Jauh sebelum iklan tersebut muncul di televisi, saya sudah mulai terobsesi dengan body building, sudah mulai menjalani latihan namun belum terprogram alias asal-asalan namun sudah merasa sedikit pede, hingga saya menemukan sebuah program yang sangat efektif dari sebuah Gain Mass Program populer di Amerika.

Selama ini Anda mungkin beranggapan bahwa orang yang memiliki badan atletis dan berotot adalah mereka yang sangat sering berlatih beban berat setiap hari selama berjam-jam. Hmm, itupun yang ada di benak saya ketika sebelum menjalani program ini. Tetapi ternyata paham seperti itu adalah sangat salah besar.

Faktanya, dengan meluangkan 2 jam setiap dua hari dengan metode pelatihan terjadwal, berkala dan bertahap diiringi dengan petunjuk asupan makanan yang seimbang, maka Anda tidak perlu berlelah-lelah menghabiskan banyak energi untuk berlatih namun Anda sudah merasakan hasilnya dalam waktu singkat, yaitu 12 minggu saja. Anda tidak perlu berpenampilan seperti seorang atlit binaraga, tetapi bagaimana Anda dapat berpenampilan lebih maskulin, berotot proporsional, dari itu akan membuat Anda terlihat lebih menarik ketimbang Anda bertubuh ala kadarnya.

Dengan beberapa bagian tubuh yang lebih menonjol, akan terlihat Anda lebih perkasa dan kelaki-lakian. Tidak dipungkiri bahwa ada bagian yang mana pria dan wanita menyukai bagian ini lebih menonjol. Tetapi bedanya pada wanita cenderung mengandung lemak, sedang pada pria terdiri dari serat otot. Yaitu program intensif untuk membentuk tubuh Anda lebih atletis dan ideal dalam kurun waktu 12 minggu saja. Sebuah program fitnes yang sangat efektif dan terbukti sangat efisien untuk membuat tubuh Anda lebih maskulin dan atletis hanya dalam waktu 12 minggu yang dilengkapi dengan gambar dan foto untuk panduan latihan, maupun petunjuk komposisi makanan dan nutrisi Anda sehari-hari selama menjalani program.

Sebuah metode alami dan menyehatkan ketimbang Anda menggunakan Anabolic Steroid ataupun jenis obat-obatan lainnya yang berefek samping terhadap kesehatan jangka panjang Anda. Seperti gangguan pada jantung, ginjal dan liver. Mungkin Anda pernah mendengar tentang seorang bintang Hollywood, Arnold Schwarzenegger yang sempat dirawat karena mengalami gangguan liver akibat konsumsi steroid berlebihan. Bisa juga sebagai tempat diskusi dan berbagi info seputar cewek bispak.

Untuk informasinya silakan klik SEKS atau kunjungi alamat situs web berikut: seks. Apakah pasangan Anda salah satunya? Apakah Anda seorang pria atau wanita yang punya masalah dalam kehidupan seks? Berdasarkan temuan 5 seksolog terkemuka di Jakarta, Bali, Yogyakarta dan Surabaya, menyatakan bahwa sebagian besar orang ingin mendapatkan kehidupan seks yang lebih kaya dan lebih menyenangkan tetapi mereka tidak ada waktu untuk mempelajari caranya.

Atau mereka terlalu malu untuk membicarakannya. Ebook Rahasia Orgasme memberikan anjuran yang tepat untuk memecahkan masalah ini dan memperbaiki kualitas hubungan seksual Anda. Bagaimana meningkatkan dan mempertahankan rangsangan, menikmati orgasme yang lebih lama, berbicara dengan pasangan Anda tentang masalah yang sensitif, dan banyak lagi akan dibahas di dalam ebook ini.

Cukup mengejutkan memang banyak wanita tak puas dengan pelayanan pria pasangannya. Pernyataan ini bukanlah sekedar berita biasa. Berikut ini 5 seksolog terkemuka dari Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Surabaya dan Bali memberikan pendapatnya dikutip dari Majalah Kartini : 1. Naek L. Tobing Jakarta. Namun tak semudah itu melakukan hubungan seks yang bisa mencapai puncak kenikmatan. Boyke Dian Nugraha,Sp. Faktor emosi, foreplay yang cukup dan rasa intim itu lebih penting dari pada sekedar gaya dan teknik.

Inilah penyebab yang banyak dirasakan wanita. Semakin banyak pria yang tidak mampu berereksi dengan maksimal makin banyak pula wanita yang merasa tidak mengecap kepuasan. Sayangnya, beberapa pasangan terutama pria tidak jarang menggunakan obat kuat yang dijual secara bebas. Padahal masalah seksual dan disfungsi ereksi adalah permasalahan yang harus dicari penyebab primernya.

Hudi Winarso, M. Ada banyak faktornya. Wanita masih terkondisi budaya malu, takut-takut dan sejenisnya. Setelah lima tahun kedua barulah masalah lain muncul, di antaranya suami mengalami gangguan ereksi, yang membuatnya tak mampu melakukan penetrasi secara optimal. Inilah penyebab ketidakpuasan pasangan dan dirinya sendiri. Pertanyaan tersebut tampaknya sama seperti apakah Anda ingin mendapatkan hadiah jutaan rupiah.

Hampir setiap orang menginginkan kehidupan seksual yang lebih baik. Meskipun telah baik, tapi ia ingin yang lebih baik. Gairah seksual memiliki kekuatan untuk membangkitkan semangat kita, tidak seperti perasaan lainnya, namun frustasi seksual juga dapat menjatuhkan semangat kita, tidak seperti perasaan lainnya.

Kita menganggap seks sebagai sesuatu yang tinggi. Lewat Ebook Rahasia Orgasme ini dimaksudkan untuk membantu Anda atau pasangan suami-istri untuk memperbaiki kehidupan seksual. Memang banyak ebook yang membahas masalah seks. Buku, video, dan artikel di majalah tentang seks menunjukkan betapa orang menginginkan dan mencari bantuan seksual.

Tetapi, mengapa ebook ini berbeda dari ebook yang lainnya? Dalam Ebook Rahasia Orgasme, berisi lebih dari sekedar memberikan nasehat-nasehat yang tidak jelas, namun memberikan anjuran untuk memecahkan masalah dan memperbaiki kualitas kehidupan seksual Anda melalui cara tertentu.

Dalam tiap masalah, Anda akan menemukan definisi, contoh yang menggambarkan definisi atau komentar dari orang tentang masalah seksual tersebut, dan saran-saran. Dalam langkah sederhana, Anda akan belajar bagaimana memperlambat ejakulasi pada pria, meningkatkan rangsangan seksual kepada wanita, berbicara kepada pasangan Anda tentang masalah yang paling menyentuh, masalah seks oral, dan banyak lagi.

Pengobatan alternatif tanpa obat tanpa alat. Bagaimana menambah ukuran penis 1 sampai 6 cm dan kuat bercinta berkali-kali? Bersiaplah menjadi pria impian setiap wanita. Jika Anda atau suami Anda mengalami ejakulasi dini, tidak tahan lama, pria menit-menitan, penis berukuran mungil, penis kurang besar, kurang panjang, penis berdiamater kecil, ereksi lemah dan loyo, produksi air mani sedikit, prostat yang lemah, kurang percaya diri, gairah seks yang rendah, bergantung dengan obat-obat kuat seperti viagra dan hubungan seks yang tidak memuaskan dan stop cukup sudah, kini Anda tidak perlu mengalaminya lagi.

Jujur saja kami bisa menyebutkan lebih banyak lagi ketidakmampuan pria dalam urusan penis dan kehidupan seksualnya. Tapi itu tentu saja hanya akan menyindir dan semakin menyakiti perasaan Anda yang mengalaminya bukan? Kami dengan Powerfull Secret Method mengungkap rahasia terbesar pria dewasa. Kuat berhubungan seks berkali-kali dan rahasia membesarkan penis hingga 6 cm. Dilengkapi dengan ratusan foto dan puluhan video latihan yang tidak akan Anda dapatkan di situs manapun.

Untuk itu kami mengungkap rahasia penis untuk Anda. Metode rahasia seks terbesar dan terlengkap yang pernah ada di Indonesia. Mulailah dengan hidup yang baru dan bersiaplah menjadi pria impian setiap wanita. Hanya dengan teknik sederhana melalui metode yang telah didesain khusus menggunakan media tangan Anda sendiri tanpa alat, tanpa obat-obatan beberapa menit per hari dalam beberapa minggu akan membuat penis Anda lebih besar, lebih tebal, lebih keras, lebih tahan lama, lebih sehat dan yang paling penting adalah hasilnya permanen.

Ebook khusus menambah ukuran alat vital pria secara alamiah. Bukan dengan metode pompa, pemberat, obat-obatan atau operasi yang seringnya tidak berguna. Hasilnya luar biasa mengejutkan. Ya, hal ini memang memungkinkan dan kami akan menunjukkan kepada Anda bagaimana caranya.

Membuat besar, panjang, keras, berotot, atasi impotensi, kuatkan ereksi, ejakulasi dini, cegah kannker prostat, mampu orgasme berkali-kali, meningkatkan ejakulasi Anda sampai 10 kali bahkan lebih dan mengejutkan istri Anda ketika Anda mencapai klimaks. Membuat istri Anda ketagihan juga ada resep rahasia dan suplemen atau vitamin yang akan membantu Anda di dalam mencapai lebih banyak frekuensi ereksi yang lebih keras, mendongkrak kemampuan sistem kekebalan tubuh Anda, menambah energi dan stamina.

Dan yang terpenting hasilnya permanen. Jadilah pria idaman wanita dan dapatkan wanita pujaan Anda. Tahukah Anda kalau Anda tidak perlu harus tampan dan kaya untuk menjadi pria idaman yang digilai setiap wanita? Wanita memang penuh teka-teki dan tidak bisa ditebak, tapi jika Anda tahu rahasianya, maka wanita secantik apapun bisa Anda dapatkan dan bisa jatuh cinta dengan Anda.

Hanya jika Anda tahu rahasia dan kuncinya. Wahai kaum pria pecinta wanita Apakah Anda bosan karena lama hidup menjomblo? Anda ingin menjadi pria yang didambakan oleh setiap wanita? Anda ingin memikat wanita idaman tanpa uang, dukun dan tidak perlu ganteng? Anda ingin menjadi cowok idaman dan dikejar-kejar cewek? Anda ingin tahu Cara jitu menggaet cewek dan meluluhkan hati cewek?

Anda ingin mendapatkan gadis pujaan Anda? Anda ingin menjadi pria sejati yang jadi kejaran wanita-wanita cantik? Anda sering minder dan tidak percaya diri saat berhadapan atau berbicara dengan wanita cantik?

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