From through summer , beetles in infestation spots killed more than 20, pines on Field validation of s aerial photography : What are we missing? Aerial photography from the s serves as the earliest synoptic depiction of vegetation cover.
We generated a spatially explicit database of shrub Prosopis velutina stand structure within two 1. The paper discusses the numerous issues that needed to be addressed when developing a methodology for mapping Submersed Aquatic Vegetation SAV from digital aerial photography. Specifically, we discuss 1 choice of film; 2 consideration of tide and weather constraints; 3 in-s The office holds and reproduces Skylab imagery and a variety of aircraft photography including infrared from various government agencies.
Available products are listed. Other topics discussed include quality control of photographic materials, analytical aerotriangulation, and photographic processes. This paper introduces a method to subdivide complex building structures like terraced houses into single house units comparable to units available in a cadastral map. By investigating the coplanarity and frequencies within a set of 3D line segments, individual cut lines for a building complex are found.
The resulting regions ideally describe single houses and thus the object complexity is reduced for subsequent topological, semantical or geometrical considerations. Correlation of missions , 51M and helicopter photography. The data obtained during aerial photography flights using a helicopter are presented. Data are presented in the form of charts. Reproductions of the aerial photographs are included.
Preliminary assessment of aerial photography techniques for canvasback population analysis. Recent intensive research on the canvasback has focused attention on the need for more precise estimates of population parameters. During the period, various types of aerial photographing equipment were evaluated to determine the problems and potentials for employing these techniques in appraisals of canvasback populations.
The equipment and procedures available for automated analysis of aerial photographic imagery were also investigated. Serious technical problems remain to be resolved, but some promising results were obtained. Final conclusions about the feasibility of operational implementation await a more rigorous analysis of the data collected. Assessing flood damage to agriculture using color infrared aerial photography.
The rationale for using color-infrared CIR film to assist in assessing flood damage to agriculture is demonstrated using examples prepared from photographs acquired of the flood in the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota.
Information concerning flood inundation boundaries, crop damage, soil erosion, sedimentation, and other similar general features and conditions was obtained through the interpretation of CIR aerial photographs. CIR aerial photographs can be used to help improve the estimates of potential remaining production on a field by field basis, owing to the increased accuracy obtained in determining the area component of crop production as compared to conventional ground sketching methods.
Department of the Interior in under the administration of the Geological Survey. It is primarily concerned with the application of remote sensing techniques for the management of natural resources. Attention is given to retrieval commands, geographic coordinate searching, refinement techniques, various online functions, and questions regarding the access to the EROS Main Image File. Remote measurement of turbidity and chlorophyll through aerial photography. Studies were conducted utilizing six different film and filter combinations to quantitatively detect chlorophyll and turbidity in six farm ponds.
The low range of turbidity from JTU correlated well with the density readings from the green band of normal color film and the high range above 35 JTU was found to correlate with density readings in the red band of color infrared film.
The effect of many of the significant variables can be reduced by using standardized procedures in taking the photography. Attempts to detect chlorophyll were masked by the turbidity. The ponds which were highly turbid also had high chlorophyll concentrations; whereas, the ponds with low turbidity also had low chlorophyll concentrations. This prevented a direct correlation for this parameter.
Several suggested approaches are cited for possible future investigations. Selected reading in agricultural applications of small-format aerial photography. This collection of material has been assembled in response to a growing. Together, these articles serve to document the prevailing level of interest in the subject and provide an insight as to what can reasonably be expected from the use of this powerful agricultural management tool.
Assessing a potential solution for spatially referencing of historical aerial photography in South Africa. Historical aerial photography has become a valuable commodity in any country, as it provides a precise record of historical land management over time. In a developing country, such as South Africa, that has undergone enormous political and social change over the last years, such photography is invaluable as it provides a clear indication of past injustices and serves as an aid to addressing post-apartheid issues such as land reform and land redistribution.
National mapping organisations throughout the world have vast repositories of such historical aerial photography. In order to effectively use these datasets in today's digital environment requires that it be georeferenced to an accuracy that is suitable for the intended purpose. Using image-to-image georeferencing techniques, this research sought to determine the accuracies achievable for ortho-rectifying large volumes of historical aerial imagery, against the national standard for ortho-rectification in South Africa, using two different types of scanning equipment.
The research conducted four tests using aerial photography from different time epochs over a period of sixty years, where the ortho-rectification matched each test to an already ortho-rectified mosaic of a developed area of mixed land use. The results of each test were assessed in terms of visual accuracy, spatial accuracy and conformance to the national standard for ortho-rectification in South Africa. The results showed a decrease in the overall accuracy of the image as the epoch range between the historical image and the reference image increased.
Recommendations on the applications possible given the different epoch ranges and scanning equipment used are provided. The flight altitude, ground coverage, photo overlap, and other acquisition specifications of an aerial photography flight mission directly affect the quality and accuracy of the subsequent mapping tasks. To ensure smooth post-flight data processing and fulfill the pre-defined mapping accuracy, flight quality assessments should be carried out in time.
This new approach is based mainly on the collinearity equations, in which the accuracy of a set of flight quality indicators is derived through a rigorous error propagation model and validated with scenario data. An even better overlap accuracy could be achieved for coarser-resolution aerial photography.
With this new approach, the flight quality evaluation can be conducted on site right after landing, providing accurate and timely information for decision making. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt. Alfred Nobel , mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.
Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite i. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications.
Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured.
In April after the death of Alfred Nobel the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.
The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species.
The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers.
Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher safer flight altitudes beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost.
The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software. Application of phase matching autofocus in airborne long-range oblique photography camera. The Condor2 long-range oblique photography LOROP camera is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod carried by a fast jet aircraft.
Front Ritchey-Chretien optics is made of highly stable materials. However, the camera temperature varies considerably in flight conditions. Moreover, a composite-material structure of the reflective objective undergoes gradual dehumidification in dry nitrogen atmosphere inside the pod, causing some small decrease of the structure length.
The temperature and humidity effects change a distance between the mirrors by just a few microns. The distance change is small but nevertheless it alters the camera's infinity focus setpoint significantly, especially in the EO band. To realize the optics' resolution potential, the optimal focus shall be constantly maintained. In-flight best focus calibration and temperature-based open-loop focus control give mostly satisfactory performance. To get even better focusing precision, a closed-loop phase-matching autofocus method was developed for the camera.
The method makes use of an existing beamsharer prism FPA arrangement where aperture partition exists inherently in an area of overlap between the adjacent detectors. The defocus is proportional to an image phase shift in the area of overlap. Low-pass filtering of raw defocus estimate reduces random errors related to variable scene content. Closed-loop control converges robustly to precise focus position. The algorithm uses the temperature- and range-based focus prediction as an initial guess for the closed-loop phase-matching control.
The autofocus algorithm achieves excellent results and works robustly in various conditions of scene illumination and contrast. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Katrina data, which can be used to assess incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change. Geological Survey USGS , as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms.
The photographs in this report document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change. Use of low-altitude aerial photography to identify submersed aquatic macrophytes. The feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to identify beds of submersed macrophytes is demonstrated. True color aerial photos and collateral ground survey information for submersed aquatic macrophyte beds at 10 sites in the St.
Clair-Detroit River system were obtained in September Using the photos and collateral ground survey information, a dichotomous key was developed for the identification of six classes - beds of five genera of macrophytes and one substrate type.
A test was prepared to determine how accurately photo interpreters could identify the six classes. The test required an interpreter to examine an unlabeled, outlined area on photographs and identify it using the key. Six interpreters were tested. One pair of interpreters was trained in the interpretation of a variety of aerial photos, a second pair had field experience in the collection and identification of submersed macrophytes in the river system, and a third pair had neither training in the interpretation of aerial photos nor field experience.
The criteria that we developed were applied equally well by the interpretors, regardless of their training or experience. Overall accuracy i. Mapping accuracy i. Although the key developed for this study has only limited application outside the context of the data and sites examined in this study, it is concluded that low-altitude aerial photography , together with limited amounts of collateral ground survey information, can be used to economically identify beds of submersed macrophytes in the St.
Clair-Detroit River system and other similar water bodies. Object-based land-cover classification for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, using aerial photography. Li, Xiaoxiao; Myint, Soe W. Detailed land-cover mapping is essential for a range of research issues addressed by the sustainability and land system sciences and planning. This study uses an object-based approach to create a 1 m land-cover classification map of the expansive Phoenix metropolitan area through the use of high spatial resolution aerial photography from National Agricultural Imagery Program.
It employs an expert knowledge decision rule set and incorporates the cadastral GIS vector layer as auxiliary data. The classification rule was established on a hierarchical image object network, and the properties of parcels in the vector layer were used to establish land cover types. Image segmentations were initially utilized to separate the aerial photos into parcel sized objects, and were further used for detailed land type identification within the parcels.
Characteristics of image objects from contextual and geometrical aspects were used in the decision rule set to reduce the spectral limitation of the four-band aerial photography. Classification results include 12 land-cover classes and subclasses that may be assessed from the sub-parcel to the landscape scales, facilitating examination of scale dynamics.
The proposed object-based classification method provides robust results, uses minimal and readily available ancillary data, and reduces computational time. Identification and extraction of the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation using digital aerial photography.
This report is one of a series that discusses methods for extracting topographic features from aerial survey data. It details step-by-step methods used to extract a spatially referenced digital line from aerial photography that represents the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation along the coast of Assateague Island National Seashore ASIS. Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan.
Aerial photography and information system technology were used to generate information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. The paper describes the use of aerial photography and information system technology in the provision of information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan.
Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the City of Lansing Vector Control Area. Assessment of forest plantations from low altitude aerial photography. Vertical color, and color-infrared, aerial photography obtained from altitudes between m and m provide a cost effective method of determining tree survival and height growth in pine plantations on the North Carolina Coastal Plain. All interpretations were performed by professional forestry personnel from the original 70 mm color transparencies.
Prompt assessment of tree survival is necessary if failed spots are to be successfully replanted. Counts of living trees made after the third growing season, and sometimes only two growing seasons after planting, are accurate enough to permit planning of replanting operations without extensive ground surveys.
Processed aerial photography for selected areas of the lower Colorado River, southwestern United States. Norman, Laura M. In this report, we present summary information on accomplishments under a USGS task for the Department of the Interior's Landscapes in the West project.
We discuss our preliminary results in compiling a digital database of geospatial information on the Lower Colorado River and acquisition of data products, and present a geospatial digital dataset of aerial photography of the river valley.
USGS authors scanned and mosaicked the photographs, registered the photo mosaics, and created metadata describing each mosaic series, all 15 of which are presented here. Use of mm color aerial photography to acquire mallard sex ratio data. A conventional mm camera equipped with an f2. Prelight focusing for a distance of This technique has broad application to the problem of determining sex ratios of various species of waterfowl concentrated on wintering and staging areas.
The aerial photographic method was cheaper than the ground ocular method when costs were compared on a per bird basis. Application of aerial photography to the study of small scale upper ocean phenomena. The industrial waste dumped n. The plume of the waste diffused vertically and horizontally. Photodensitometry of aerial photos of the plume showed lateral dispersion of the plume in agreement with two other methods: acoustic tracking of the waste suspensoid and transmissometer sampling.
In addition, the method showed small scale features like the lateral and longitudinal variations in the photodensity, indicating the waste concentration. This waste concentration showed periodic changes in its axial distance, with the spectral peak at about m wave length. It shows a sharp increase at the windward edge of the plume as do the acoustic records.
This phenomenon is explained in terms of the shearing current near the surface together with vertical diffusion. The periodic change along the axis is explained in terms of the Langmuir circulation and in terms of internal ship waves. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, September , Geological Survey USGS , as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms Morgan, On September , , the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, aboard a Cessna C aircraft at an altitude of feet ft and approximately 1, ft offshore.
This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes of the beach and nearshore area, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System GPS latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist photographer , caption, copyright, and contact information.
The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images see the Navigation Data page. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time.
These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. The KML file was created using the photographic navigation files. The KML file can be found in the kml folder. Identification of irrigated crop types from ERTS-1 density contour maps and color infrared aerial photography.
The author has identified the following significant results. The crop types of a Great Plains study area were mapped from color infrared aerial photography. Each field was positively identified from field checks in the area. Enlarged 50x density contour maps were constructed from three ERTS-1 images taken in the summer of The map interpreted from the aerial photography was compared to the density contour maps and the accuracy of the ERTS-1 density contour map interpretations were determined.
Changes in the vegetation during the growing season and harvest periods were detectable on the ERTS-1 imagery. Density contouring aids in the detection of such charges. Peppa, M. Understanding and protecting cultural heritage involves the detection and long-term documentation of archaeological remains alongside the spatio-temporal analysis of their landscape evolution.
Archive aerial photography can illuminate traces of ancient features which typically appear with different brightness values from their surrounding environment, but are not always well defined. This research investigates the implementation of the Structure-from-Motion - Multi-View Stereo image matching approach with an image enhancement algorithm to derive three epochs of orthomosaics and digital surface models from visible and near infrared historic aerial photography.
The enhancement algorithm uses decorrelation stretching to improve the contrast of the orthomosaics so as archaeological features are better detected. The study also discusses the merits and difficulties of the process involved. This research is based on a European-wide project, entitled "Cultural Heritage Through Time", and the case study research was carried out as a component of the project in the UK. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Breton Island, Louisiana, to the Alabama-Florida border, July 13, Geological Survey USGS conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms.
On July 13, , the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Breton Island, Louisiana, to the Alabama-Florida border, aboard a Cessna flying at an altitude of feet ft and approximately 1, ft offshore. ExifTtool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System GPS latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist photographer , caption, copyright, and contact information.
The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images see the Navigation Data page. These photographs document the configuration of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. These segements can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Table 1 provides detailed information about the GPS location, name, date, and time each of the photographs taken along with links to each photograph.
The photography is organized into segments, also referred to as contact sheets, and represent approximately 5 minutes of flight time. Also see the Photos and Maps page. In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language KML file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then.
On August 8, , the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana, aboard a Cessna at an altitude of feet ft and approximately 1, ft offshore. Exiftool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System GPS latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist photographer , caption, copyright, and contact information.
In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language KML file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking. The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation.
Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin. It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods.
The use of color infrared aerial photography in determining salt marsh vegetation and delimiting man-made structures of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. Color infrared aerial photography was found to be superior to color aerial photography in an ecological study of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. The research was divided into three phases: 1 Determination of the feasibility of correlating color infrared aerial photography with saline wetland species composition and zonation patterns, 2 determination of the accuracy of the aerial interpretation and problems related to the aerial method used; and 3 comparison of developed with undeveloped areas along Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline.
Wetland species composition and plant community zonation bands were compared with aerial infrared photography and resulted in a high degree of correlation. Problems existed with changing physical conditions; time of day, aircraft angle and sun angle, making it necessary to use several different characteristics in wetland species identification.
The main characteristics used were known zonation patterns, textural signatures and color tones. Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline was Oblique aerial photographs are commonly collected to document coastal landscapes. Here we show that these historical photographs can be used to develop topographic models with Structure-from-Motion SfM photogrammetric techniques if adequate photo-to-photo overlaps exist.
Focusing on the m high cliffs of Fort Funston, California, photographs from the California Coastal Records Project were combined with ground control points to develop topographic point clouds of the study area for five years between and Uncertainties in the results were assessed by comparing SfM-derived point clouds with airborne lidar data, and the differences between these data were related to the number and spatial distribution of ground control points used in the SfM analyses.
With six or more ground control points the root mean squared error between the SfM and lidar data was less than 0. The time-series of topographic point clouds revealed many topographic changes, including landslides, rockfalls and the erosion of landslide talus along the Fort Funston beach. Thus, we concluded that historical oblique photographs, such as those generated by the California Coastal Records Project, can provide useful tools for mapping coastal topography and measuring coastal change.
This paper compares two methods for enumerating salmon redds and their application to monitoring spawning activity. Aerial photographs of fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River were digitized and mapped using Geographic Information Systems GIS techniques in and as part of an annual assessment of the population. The number of visible redds from these photographs were compared to counts obtained from visual surveys with fixed wing aircraft.
The proportion of the total redds within each of five general survey areas was similar for the two monitoring techniques. The divergence in redd counts was most evident near peak spawning activity when the number of redds within individual spawning clusters exceeded Aerial photography improved our ability to monitor numbers of visible salmon redds and to quantify habitat use.
Using aerial photography for mapping giant reed infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande. Giant reed Arundo donax L. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and Mapping giant reed Arundo donax infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography.
Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested Accuracy assessment of vegetation community maps generated by aerial photography interpretation: perspective from the tropical savanna, Australia.
Aerial photography interpretation is the most common mapping technique in the world. However, unlike an algorithm-based classification of satellite imagery, accuracy of aerial photography interpretation generated maps is rarely assessed. Vegetation communities covering an area of km2 on Bullo River Station, Northern Territory, Australia, were mapped using an interpretation of , color aerial photography.
Manual stereoscopic line-work was delineated at , and thematic maps generated at , and , Multivariate and intuitive analysis techniques were employed to identify 22 vegetation communities within the study area. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for both thematic maps was Our findings highlight the need for appropriate scales of mapping and accuracy assessment of aerial photography interpretation generated vegetation community maps. Monitoring lava-dome growth during the Mount St.
Helens, Washington, eruption using oblique terrestrial photography. We present an analysis of lava dome growth during the — eruption of Mount St. Helens using oblique terrestrial images from a network of remotely placed cameras. This underutilized monitoring tool augmented more traditional monitoring techniques, and was used to provide a robust assessment of the nature, pace, and state of the eruption and to quantify the kinematics of dome growth.
Eruption monitoring using terrestrial photography began with a single camera deployed at the mouth of the volcano's crater during the first year of activity. From May through September , imagery from multiple cameras deployed around the volcano allowed determination of 3-dimensional motion across the dome complex. The ability to measure spatial and temporal rates of motion of the effusing lava dome from oblique terrestrial photographs provided a significant, and sometimes the sole, means of identifying and quantifying dome growth during the eruption, and it demonstrates the utility of using frequent, long-term terrestrial photography to monitor and study volcanic eruptions.
Estimation of walrus populations on sea ice with infrared imagery and aerial photography. Population sizes of ice-associated pinnipeds have often been estimated with visual or photographic aerial surveys, but these methods require relatively slow speeds and low altitudes, limiting the area they can cover.
Recent developments in infrared imagery and its integration with digital photography could allow substantially larger areas to be surveyed and more accurate enumeration of individuals, thereby solving major problems with previous survey methods. We conducted a trial survey in April to estimate the number of Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens hauled out on sea ice around St.
Lawrence Island, Alaska. The survey used high altitude infrared imagery to detect groups of walruses on strip transects. Low altitude digital photography was used to determine the number of walruses in a sample of detected groups and calibrate the infrared imagery for estimating the total number of walruses. We propose a survey design incorporating this approach with satellite radio telemetry to estimate the proportion of the population in the water and additional low-level flights to estimate the proportion of the hauled-out population in groups too small to be detected in the infrared imagery.
We believe that this approach offers the potential for obtaining reliable population estimates for walruses and other ice-associated pinnipeds. In hardly accessible areas, the collection of 3D point-clouds using TLS Terrestrial Laser Scanner can be very challenging, while airborne equivalent would not give a correct account of subvertical features and concave geometries like caves.
To solve such problem, the authors have experimented an aerial photography based SfM Structure from Motion technique on a 'peninsular-rock' surrounded on three sides by the sea at a Pacific coast in eastern Japan. As a result, high-resolution aerial orthophotographs and a 3D model were obtained.
The results have shown that it was possible to survey the sea cliff and the wave cut-bench, which are unobservable from land side. In details, we could observe the complexity of the sea cliff that is nearly vertical as a whole while slightly overhanging over the thinner base.
The wave cut bench is nearly flat and develops extensively at the base of the cliff. Although there are some evidences of small rockfalls at the upper part of the cliff, there is no evidence of very recent activity, because no fallen rock exists on the wave cut bench. This system has several merits: firstly lower cost than the existing measuring methods such as manned-flight survey and aerial laser. The use of large-scale aerial color photography for assessing forest tree diseases. Basal canker of white pine: a case study.
This paper discusses the use of aerial color photography to discern symptoms of the disease as it developed over time, the factors contributing to disease development, and the patterns of disease development. Looking into the water with oblique head tilting: revision of the aerial binocular imaging of underwater objects. It is a well-known phenomenon that when we look into the water with two aerial eyes, both the apparent position and the apparent shape of underwater objects are different from the real ones because of refraction at the water surface.
Earlier studies of the refraction-distorted structure of the underwater binocular visual field of aerial observers were restricted to either vertically or horizontally oriented eyes. We investigate a generalized version of this problem: We calculate the position of the binocular image point of an underwater object point viewed by two arbitrarily positioned aerial eyes, including oblique orientations of the eyes relative to the flat water surface.
Assuming that binocular image fusion is performed by appropriate vergent eye movements to bring the object's image onto the foveas, the structure of the underwater binocular visual field is computed and visualized in different ways as a function of the relative positions of the eyes. We show that a revision of certain earlier treatments of the aerial imaging of underwater objects is necessary. We analyze and correct some widespread erroneous or incomplete representations of this classical geometric optical problem that occur in different textbooks.
Improving the theory of aerial binocular imaging of underwater objects, we demonstrate that the structure of the underwater binocular visual field of aerial observers distorted by refraction is more complex than has been thought previously. Using aerial photography to estimate riparian zone impacts in a rapidly developing river corridor. Riparian zones are critical for protecting water quality and wildlife, but are often impacted by human activities. Ongoing threats and uncertainty about the effectiveness of buffer regulations emphasize the importance of monitoring riparian buffers through time.
We developed a method to rapidly categorize buffer width and landuse attributes using leaf-on aerial photography and applied it to a 65 km section of the Toccoa River in north Georgia. We repeated our protocol using leaf-off aerial photographs to assess the utility of our approach for monitoring.
Field verification indicated that our method overestimated buffer widths and forested land use and underestimated built-up land use and the number of buildings within ft of the river. Our methodology can be used to rapidly assess the status of riparian buffers. Including supplemental data e. Our results on the Toccoa River reflect historic impacts, exemptions and variances to regulations, and the ongoing threat of vacation home development. We recommend additional monitoring, improvements in policy, and efforts to increase voluntary protection and restoration of stream buffers.
Early aerial photography and contributions to Digital Earth - The case of the Halifax air survey mission in Canada. This paper presents research into the military and civilian history, technological development, and practical outcomes of aerial photography in Canada immediately after the First World War.
The collections of early aerial photography in Canada and elsewhere, as well as the institutional and practical circumstances and arrangements of their creation, represent an important part of remote sensing heritage. It is argued that the digital rendition of the air photos and their representation in mosaic form can make valuable contributions to Digital Earth historic inquiries and mapping exercises today.
An episode of one of the first urban surveys, carried out over Halifax, Nova Scotia, in , is highlighted and an air photo mosaic and interpretation key is presented. Using the almost one hundred year old air photos and a digitally re-assembled mosaic of a substantial portion of that collection as a guide, a variety of features unique to the post-war urban landscape of the Halifax peninsula are analysed, illustrated, and compared with records of past and current land use.
The pan-chromatic air photo ensemble at a nominal scale of , is placed into the historical context with contemporary thematic maps, recent air photos, and modern satellite imagery. Further research opportunities and applications concerning early Canadian aerial photography are outlined. This paper proposes a two-stage method for the reconstruction of city buildings with discontinuities and roof overhangs from oriented nadir and oblique aerial images. To model the structures the input data is transformed into a dense point cloud, segmented and filtered with a modified marching cubes algorithm to reduce the positional noise.
Assuming a monolithic building the remaining vertices are initially projected onto a 2D grid and passed to RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to geometrically determine finite wall, ground and roof planes.
If this should fail due to the presence of discontinuities the regression will be repeated on a 3D level by traversing voxels within the regularly subdivided bounding box of the building point set. For each cube a planar piece of the current surface is approximated and expanded. The resulting segments get mutually intersected yielding both topological and geometrical nodes and edges. These entities will be eliminated if their distance-based affiliation to the defining point sets is violated leaving a consistent building hull including its structural breaks.
To add the roof overhangs the computed polygonal meshes are projected onto the digital surface model derived from the point cloud. Their shapes are offset equally along the edge normals with subpixel accuracy by detecting the zero-crossings of the second-order directional derivative in the gradient direction of the height bitmap and translated back into world space to become a component of the building.
As soon as the reconstructed objects are finished the aerial images are further used to generate a compact texture atlas for visualization purposes. An optimized atlas bitmap is generated that allows perspectivecorrect multi-source texture mapping without prior rectification involving a partially parallel placement algorithm.
Moreover, the texture atlases undergo object-based image analysis OBIA to detect window areas which get reintegrated into the building. Computer-aided classification of forest cover types from small scale aerial photography.
The US National Park Service must map forest cover types over extensive areas in order to fulfill its goal of maintaining or reconstructing presettlement vegetation within national parks and monuments. Furthermore, such cover type maps must be updated on a regular basis to document vegetation changes. Computer-aided classification of small scale aerial photography is a promising technique for generating forest cover type maps efficiently and inexpensively.
The results were encouraging, given the degraded quality of the photograph and the fact that features were not centered, as well as the lack of information on lens vignetting characteristics to make corrections. Suggestions are made for resolving these problems in future research and applications. In addition, it is hypothesized that the overall accuracy is artificially low because the computer-aided classification more accurately portrayed the intermixing of cover types than the hand-drawn maps to which it was compared.
Highway extraction from high resolution aerial photography using a geometric active contour model. Highway extraction and vehicle detection are two of the most important steps in traffic-flow analysis from multi-frame aerial photographs.
The traditional method of deriving traffic flow trajectories relies on manual vehicle counting from a sequence of aerial photographs, which is tedious and time-consuming. This research presents a new framework for semi-automatic highway extraction. The basis of the new framework is an improved geometric active contour GAC model. This novel model seeks to minimize an objective function that transforms a problem of propagation of regular curves into an optimization problem.
The implementation of curve propagation is based on level set theory. By using an implicit representation of a two-dimensional curve, a level set approach can be used to deal with topological changes naturally, and the output is unaffected by different initial positions of the curve. However, the original GAC model, on which the new model is based, only incorporates boundary information into the curve propagation process. An error-producing phenomenon called leakage is inevitable wherever there is an uncertain weak edge.
In this research, region-based information is added as a constraint into the original GAC model, thereby, giving this proposed method the ability of integrating both boundary and region-based information during the curve propagation. Adding the region-based constraint eliminates the leakage problem. This dissertation applies the proposed augmented GAC model to the problem of highway extraction from high-resolution aerial photography. First, an optimized stopping criterion is designed and used in the implementation of the GAC model.
It effectively saves processing time and computations. Second, a seed point propagation framework is designed and implemented. This framework incorporates highway extraction, tracking, and linking into one procedure.
A seed point is usually placed at an end node of highway segments close to the boundary of the. Research applications of night-time aerial photography , from local to global scales. The collection of digital color night photography from the International Space Station ISS presents an opportunity to rapidly map artificial lighting at a medium resolution and large extent, but radiance calibrated data do not yet exist.
We therefore used our ground surveys and aerial night photographs of London to reclassify pixels within an ISS image of SE England to represent upward radiant flux. In addition, we were able to explore whether the estimated radiance values for each pixel resulted from a few bright light sources or multiple dim lamps, raising the possibility of improved estimates of lighting character based on prior probability models. Given the global step-change underway in artificial lighting and the high demand for data on urban systems, our results suggest that a suite of complimentary lighting measurement techniques that includes night-time aerial photography would be beneficial.
This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching SGM.
The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution.
Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model DSM of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric constraints and.
This dissertation examines the region along the Stanegate frontier, just below Hadrian's Wall, on both a macroscopic and microscopic level, to analyze how landscape affected placement of forts, camps, and other military structures. It aims to explore known archaeological structures as well as expose new areas of interest, not yet discovered through traditional survey methods.
It asks the question of whether temporary structures helped lead to the development of permanent structures, as part of the overall limes defensive strategy. While a lack of archaeological dating on many of these structures often provides the greatest challenge, the aim is to determine what additional information can be deduced about how landscape affected this region and to set an agenda of future survey work, designed to improve our understanding of it.
In addition, this approach aims to improve understanding of the function of these installations and their relationship to the Wall and each other. Aerial photography and the construction of a geographic information system GIS can prove a valuable tool in surveying the region, to extract data from forts, camps, and recently discovered land depressions. Measurements can be taken to determine if there is a similar building pattern which might reflect contemporaneous construction periods.
Distances between structures can be taken to determine the significance of their spacing and arrangement. In addition, data sets containing information on bedrock, ancient woodlands, ecology, and hydrology can provide valuable insight on the topography of each site. This work is meant to serve as a foundational piece for future scholars to build upon to continue to expand our understanding of the region, as computational methods become more sophisticated and data access becomes more readily available across the globe.
The sky is the limit? One hundred years after the first publication on aerial photography taken from unmanned aerial platforms Arthur Batut , small-format aerial photography SFAP became a distinct niche within remote sensing during the s. Geographers, plant biologists, archaeologists and other researchers with geospatial interests re-discovered the usefulness of unmanned platforms for taking high-resolution, low-altitude photographs that could then be digitized and analysed with geographical information systems, softcopy photogrammetry and image processing techniques originally developed for digital satellite imagery.
Even before the ubiquity of digital consumer-grade cameras and 3D analysis software accessible to the photogrammetric layperson, do-it-yourself remote sensing using kites, blimps, drones and micro air vehicles literally enabled the questing researcher to get their own pictures of the world.
As a flexible, cost-effective method, SFAP offered images with high spatial and temporal resolutions that could be ideally adapted to the scales of landscapes, forms and distribution patterns to be monitored. During the last five years, this development has been significantly accelerated by the rapid technological advancements of GPS navigation, autopiloting and revolutionary softcopy-photogrammetry techniques.
State-of-the-art unmanned aerial systems UAS now allow automatic flight planning, autopilot-controlled aerial surveys, ground control-free direct georeferencing and DEM plus orthophoto generation with centimeter accuracy, all within the space of one day. The ease of use of current UAS and processing software for the generation of high-resolution topographic datasets and spectacular visualizations is tempting and has spurred the number of publications on these issues - but which advancements in our knowledge and understanding of geomorphological processes have we seen and can we expect in the future?
This presentation traces the development of the last two decades. Suitability of low cost commercial off-the-shelf aerial platforms and consumer grade digital cameras for small format aerial photography. Many research projects require the use of aerial images. Wetlands evaluation, crop monitoring, wildfire management, environmental change detection, and forest inventory are but a few of the applications of aerial imagery.
Low altitude Small Format Aerial Photography SFAP is a bridge between satellite and man-carrying aircraft image acquisition and ground-based photography. The crew spaced the debutantes carefully, and took pictures with the masks, and then allowed the girls to briefly remove their masks for additional photos. Bethany Erickson, deputy editor at People Newspapers, cut her teeth on community journalism, starting in Arkansas.
She doesn't like lima beans, black licorice or the word synergy. Your email address will not be published. February 8, February 8, Bethany Erickson 0 Comments. Share this article Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.
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Val Jean Freehling. Mitsuo "Mike" Minamoto Aurora. Janice Myers Arvada. Benjamin Moscoso Denver, Colorado. Arla Haley Littleton, Colorado. Kathleen Snellgrove. Frank Wolf Brighton. Anthony Allbritton. Email For Career Opportunities. Push button for menu Push button for menu. Name Word. Wallace Johnson Littleton Wallace S. Parents Ed and Glo Stanley Johnson. Bachelor's Degree in PhD in U of Idaho from Lived in California 2 years. Lived in Chicago for 7 years.
Moved to Idaho in taught HS in Ashton for those 10 years. Wallace S. He finally succumbed to the numerous complications that continued after his cardiac arrest. William Duane Ruybal, age 51, slipped away peacefully, surrounded in love and peace at Swedish Hospital on Sunday, February 7, after a long battle back from Cardiac Arrest on December 25, She was preceded in death by her parents, John William Sr.
Born June 21, , in She was preceded in death by her parents, John William James F. Amy L. Roberts, Sarita M Ronald Allen Born Oct St. Shaw, It is with great sadness that the family of Ron announces that he passed away on February 7, in Denver Colorado. Born Oct St. Shaw, It is with great sadness that the family of Ron announces that he passed away on February 7, Survived by her husband, Robert L.
Survived by her Edwin Michael Meis Eddie. He was the 5th of 6 children born to Gisaburo and Taka Minamoto. As a child, his family picked coffee beans for a living on a coffee farm. Soon after graduating from high school, he enlisted in the Army Air Corps and was assigned to post war Japan. While in the military, his fellow soldiers had difficulty pronouncing his name let alone remembering it, so they started calling him As a child, his family picked coffee Janice Myers Arvada Jan, 79 years old, passed away on February 4, after a short illness.
While she was Bettinger Photography, est. Bettinger Photography is the oldest family owned portrait studio in Colorado. Over the years, thousands of families, high school seniors, and business executives have trusted Bettinger to create portraits that stand the test of time and will be cherished by future generations. Full service indoor and outdoor studios are located in South Denver near the University of Denver. Bettinger's private outdoor garden studio has evolved over the years to be one of the premier locations in the area.
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