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Walters and Justine M. Broad St. Pine St. Simmerman to Salvatore W. Myers and Cherie L. Johnson and Shurron Johnson to Michael R. Mayo Sr. Clark Jr. Bryan to Charles A. Mulch to Terence G. Rehm and Kara T. Sarlo and Dawnelle C.
Sarlo to William E. Ahlquist by attorney-in-fact John D. Jordan, to Matthew I. Burgin and Kathy A. Burgi to Parker C. Dawson Dr. Glemser Jr. Glemser to Burroughs W. Wheat Road, Edith H. West Blvd. Scarlett to Louis P. Smith to Gary W. Walsh IV and Lauren R. Dow and Ann P. McAleer and Amber L. Duvall to Amber Wilk and Brian S. Most brown pelican populations are resident nonmigratory and dispersive species moving from its birth site to its breeding site, or its breeding site to another breeding site , although some migration is observed, especially in the northern areas of its range, but these movements are often erratic, depending on local conditions.
Southwards, they are vagrants found outside its usual range in Tierra del Fuego. They have been recorded off the eastern coast of Brazil, in Alagoas. The brown pelican is a very gregarious bird; it lives in flocks of both sexes throughout the year. The brown pelican is a piscivore , primarily feeding on fish.
It is an occasional target of kleptoparasitism by other fish-eating birds such as gulls , skuas , and frigatebirds. The brown pelican is a monogamous breeder within a breeding season, but does not pair for life. They may also be accompanied by low raaa calls. Once a pair forms a bond, overt communication between them is minimal. It is a colonial species, with some colonies maintained for many years. Probably owing to disturbance, tick infestation , or alteration in food supply, colonies frequently shift.
There are usually two to three, or sometimes even four, oval eggs in a clutch, and only one brood is raised per year. It takes 28 to 30 days for the eggs to hatch,  and about 63 days to fledge. The parents regurgitate predigested food for the young to feed upon until they reach their fledging stage. Juvenile brown pelican in flight, Bodega Head , California. Predation is occasional at colonies, and predators of eggs and young usually small nestlings are threatened but also occasionally up to fledgling size depending on the size of the predator can include gulls , raptors especially bald eagles , alligators , vultures , fish crows , and corvids.
Predation on adult brown pelicans is rarely reported, but cases where they have fallen prey to bald eagles have been reported. Also, South American sea lions and unidentified large sharks have been observed to prey on adult brown pelicans by seizing them from beneath while the birds are sitting on ocean waters. The brown pelican is now a staple of crowded coastal regions and is tolerated to varying degrees by fishermen and boaters.
In the early twentieth century, hunting was a major cause of its death, and people still hunt adults for their feathers and collect eggs on the Caribbean coasts, in Latin American , and occasionally in the United States, even though it is protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of In the film The Pelican Brief , based on the novel of the same name by John Grisham , a legal brief speculates that the assassins of two supreme court justices were motivated by a desire to drill for oil on a Louisiana marshland that was a habitat of the endangered brown pelican.
In the same year, Jurassic Park showed a pod of brown pelicans at the end of the film. In , American conductor David Woodard performed a requiem for a California brown pelican on the seaward limit of the berm of a beach where the animal had fallen. Starting in the s with the invention and extensive use of pesticides such as DDT , the brown pelican population had drastically declined due to a lack of breeding success. By the s, it had almost disappeared along the Gulf Coast and, in southern California , it had suffered almost total reproductive failure, due to DDT usage in the United States.
There has been a decline in chemical contaminant levels in brown pelican eggs since then, and a corresponding increase in its nesting success. By , its population in the eastern United States, including Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, and northward along the Atlantic Coast, had recovered and the species was removed from the Endangered Species List. Although the United States Gulf Coast populations in Louisiana and Texas are still listed as endangered, they were recently estimated in about 12, breeding pairs.
Since that time the Deepwater Horizon oil spill has adversely affected populations, and current population figures are not available. The brown pelican abundance has steadily recovered from the drastic population decreases in the s, however bottom up control threatens the Southern California populations as food sources become diminished. It is common for forage fish populations to experience regular fluctuations, however there has been a consistent decrease in the Pacific sardine population beginning as early as The brown pelican has been predicted to have high vulnerability to declining sardine populations.
Seabirds have become increasingly important as an indicator species. They are often used in order to indirectly track changes in fish stocks, ecosystem health, and climate change. Sardine fishery in the Gulf of California has been showing signs of overfishing since the early s. As the proportion of sardines in the brown pelicans diet decreases, the success of fisheries declines to a lesser extent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Pelecanus occidentalis.
Species of bird. Conservation status. Retrieved 3 June Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Smithsonian Institution Press. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Elliott, A. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. Retrieved August 18, Archived from the original on Retrieved Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Sea-level rise: destruction of threatened and endangered species habitat in South Carolina. Environmental management, 17 3 , CRC Press. Eric; Fowler, Murray E. Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. Kale Florida : Pineapple Press Inc. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Wildlife of Virginia and Maryland and Washington.
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Coastal Society. Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Thunder Bay Press. The Condor. Final report, California seabird ecology study. Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Suryan Oregon Birds. Tallman; David L. Swanson; Jeffrey S.
Palmer Northern State University Press. The Behavior of Texas Birds. University of Texas Press. Smithsonian's National Zoological Park. The Auk. Archived from the original PDF on Common Coastal Birds of Florida and the Caribbean. Pineapple Press Inc. A Dictionary of Birds. Bloomsbury Publishing.
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