Highly rec Am fortunate enough to live in Riehen so very close by. I have lived at St. Chrischona for several years and visited many times between, be this for studies, for conferences, for a good meal at the restaurant Waldrain or just for a walk in the fresh air.
App Download the App for Free. Top currencies. Search Bookings. Register Sign In. Address: St. Chrischona, Bettingen , Switzerland. Impressive site and construction. Great walking. PhPSch Singapore, Singapore. Perfect place for a break, a walk, or quiet study time. Reviews from Tripadvisor. Located Nearby. Wenken Park "City Park".
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Very impressive to stand on the 48th floor with an view in all directions. The view is magnificent. Highly rec Am fortunate enough to live in Riehen so very close by. I have lived at St. Chrischona for several years and visited many times between, be this for studies, for conferences, for a good meal at the restaurant Waldrain or just for a walk in the fresh air. App Download the App for Free. Top currencies.
Search Bookings. Register Sign In. Address: St. Chrischona, Bettingen , Switzerland. Impressive site and construction. Great walking. PhPSch Singapore, Singapore. Perfect place for a break, a walk, or quiet study time. Reviews from Tripadvisor. As early as a church was built on the heights, dedicated to Saint Chrischona.
Since there have been a hospital and retirement homes in the area. A landmark for Bettingen, the Swisscom-Sendeturm St. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Argent, a Cup Gules. Bettingen has a population as of August [update] of 1, It has changed at a rate of 2. Most of the population as of [update] speaks German 1, or Of the population in the municipality or about There were or In [update] there were 5 live births to Swiss citizens and 5 births to non-Swiss citizens, and in same time span there were 10 deaths of Swiss citizens.
Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 5 while the foreign population increased by 5. There were 4 Swiss men who immigrated back to Switzerland. At the same time, there were 7 non-Swiss men and 11 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland.
The total Swiss population change in from all sources, including moves across municipal borders was a decrease of 14 and the non-Swiss population increased by 21 people. This represents a population growth rate of 0. As of [update] , there were people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were married individuals, 61 widows or widowers and 55 individuals who are divorced.
As of [update] , there were private households in the municipality, and an average of 2. Out of a total of households that answered this question, Of the rest of the households, there are married couples without children, married couples with children There were 18 single parents with a child or children. There were 4 households that were made up of unrelated people and 19 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing.
In [update] there were single family homes or There were 42 multi-family buildings Of the single family homes 12 were built before , while 21 were built between and The greatest number of single family homes 55 were built between and In [update] there were apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was 5 rooms of which there were There were 20 single room apartments and apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of apartments The historical population is given in the following chart:  .
The entire hill and surrounding area of St. Chrischona is designated as part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites . In the federal election the most popular party was the LPS Party which received The next three most popular parties were the FDP In the federal election, a total of votes were cast, and the voter turnout was As of [update] , there were 10 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 2 businesses involved in this sector.
In [update] the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was The number of jobs in the primary sector was 5, all of which were in agriculture. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 10 of which 1 was in manufacturing and 9 The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was In the tertiary sector; 13 or 4.
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FDO Enterprise. Get a quote. Plus applicable sales tax Lock in 2 years now! Save more on our most popular plan! Most flexible! Plus applicable sales tax Billed Monthly. Cancel at any time. FDO Clients Include. Fibrosis resulted in extensive collagen deposition Sirius red and increased distance between myocytes Fast green 6 weeks after infarction. Figure 6A represents apoptotic nuclei of cardiomyocytes 6 weeks after myocardial infarction. We evaluated human GAPDH expression at 3 different parts from the infarction area and identified implanted cells in the mouse tissue 6 weeks after myocardial infarction following hMSC application with selective binding human nuclei antibody HNA Figure 7A.
There was no significant difference between different hMSC groups. It was not clear whether the transplanted cells had fused or differentiated into cardiomyocytes. There were no significant differences in the upper heart section. Representative immunofluorescent micrographs of hearts transplanted with hMSC.
A transplanted hMSC could be identified in infarcted myocardium B. Occasionally hMSC Arrow, human nuclei in green co-localized with cardiac troponin positive cell red. As the acidification is closely linked to the cellular energy metabolism, we measured the acidification rate of hMSC under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions. Figure 9 shows the delivery efficiency of antisense into hMSC and antisense delivery decreased network formation of BM-hMSC compared to nature and scrambled group.
Transfection efficiency is shown on the upper picture GFP B. The MTT assay is widely used to measure metabolic activity and cell proliferation. At different time points we detected metabolic activity of BMantisense and BMscrambled. The antisense blocking of CD seems to lose at later time points we measured Figure 9C.
The present study for the first time systematically evaluated the cardiac regenerative capability of hMSC derived from different human origins in a SCID mouse left anterior descending LAD ligation model via intracardiac injection. We showed that hMSC originating form different sources could induce significant morphological and functional differences in cardiac parameters. Significant higher localization of human cells could be seen in the middle and apex section of BM-hMSC treated hearts, which might be the result of a migration effect similar than that seen by cardiac stem cells .
It has been not determined if there might be therapeutic differences. Herein we are able to analyze structural, functional and molecular changes associated with acute MI. Besides cytoskeletal organization, endoglin is also associated with the development of the cardiovascular system and vascular remodeling  , . Furthermore, it is a proliferation-associated and hypoxia-inducible protein which is efficiently expressed in endothelial cells during tumor angiogenesis  ,  — .
Hence, low or less CD might be a potential candidate for the overall worse performance of animals treated with the whole fraction of CB-derived hMSC. The stem cell surface marker CD additionally might be of importance during the regeneration process of the infarcted heart. Taken together, the presented study demonstrated that hMSC display different regenerative effects in the post-infarct period. These results underscore the importance of a detailed evaluation of the different sources of hMSC prior to their clinical application, in order to increase the patient benefit of stem cell therapy after MI.
Bone marrow for research purposes was received according to the approval by the Heidelberg University Ethical Board; approval nos. All samples were taken after written consent using guidelines approved by the Ethic Committee on the Use of Human Subjects at the University of Heidelberg. Cells were harvested at sub-confluency using trypsin. After the third passage, cells have been used for subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments. The positive fraction was used for subsequent experimentation.
The positive fraction was used for in vivo experiments without further culture. In order to analyze the surface expression of CD by Flow Cytometry, magnetic separation was carried on at passage 3. Mouse isotype antibodies served as control. After thoracotomy and preparation, the left anterior descending coronary artery LAD was permanently ligated. Immediately after LAD-ligation, each mouse received an intramyocardial injection of Calibration of pressure and volume was performed by equating the minimal and maximal conductances with minimal 0 mmHg and maximal mmHg pressures as well as minimal and maximal blood volumes received from venous circulation.
After inserting the catheter into the carotid artery, retrograde access to the left ventricle LV was achieved. Data were analyzed with IOX Version 1. Hearts were arrested in diastole with potassium chloride. Each heart was removed, embedded in O. The three interlayers between the mentioned levels have been collected separately for RNA isolation. Collagen density was expressed as the ratio of collagen deposition to myocardial tissue in percentage.
Results were expressed as the proportion of the TUNEL positive cardiomyocytes nuclei to the total number of cardiomyocytes in percentage. The sections were analyzed within the BZ and RA of the heart. Results were expressed as capillaries per high power field HPF. In order to investigate the differentiation capacity of hMSC after transplantation into the infarcted heart multiple antibodies staining was performed.
Subsequently, human nuclei were stained following the protocol previously described and a rabbit polyclonal anti-troponin I primary antibody Santa Cruz was applied to the sections. The silicon sensor chip technology allows the observation of cellular behaviour in cell cultures. The cells were seeded in duplicate 24 h before measurement directly on the chip surface to assure highly specific signal detection. The measurement is noninvasive and label-free. The media flow over the cells is stopped periodically.
Breakdown products lactate, CO 2 and the oxygen consumption of cells result in a change of pH and oxygen content in the medium. These changes are measured in the stop phases of the pump cycle. The stop and go cycle of 8 min each is carried out over the whole experiment.
The pH of the running medium was adjusted to 7. For measurement under hypoxic conditions the analyzing system was operating in a nitrogen environment. At the end of the experiment the cells were killed by addition of 0. The induction of chondrogenic differentiation was performed for 4 weeks. The differentiation capacity toward different cell lineages was verified by morphology changes and immunostaining for specific markers, that is, aggrecan for chondrocytes and, fatty acid binding protein FABP-4 for adipocytes.
BM-hMSC at passage 3 was seeded 24 h before transfection. Absorbance was measured by a microplate reader Model , Bio-Rad at a wavelength of nm with a reference wavelength of nm. Cell viability was calculated using the following equation:. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaStat 3. Overall comparisons of the treatment groups were performed by using the one-way analysis of variance ANOVA method that applies post-hoc multiple Holm-Sidak tests, and by using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis failing normality or post-hoc multiple Dunn tests.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
PLoS One. Published online Feb Costanza Emanueli, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 10; Accepted Nov Copyright Gaebel et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract The possible different therapeutic efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells hMSC derived from umbilical cord blood CB , adipose tissue AT or bone marrow BM for the treatment of myocardial infarction MI remains unexplored. Introduction Cell transplantation utilizing different cell types including skeletal myoblasts  ,  , cardiomyocytes  ,  , smooth muscle cells  ,  , bone marrow cells  and hematopoietic stem cells  , has emerged as a promising therapeutic avenue for cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction damage.
Results Immunophenotypic analysis and functional differentiation Cell isolation, expansion, characterization, and differentiation of hMSC have been established according to previous reports  , . Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Phenotypic characterization of hMSC from different sources. Table 1 Immunophenotypic analysis of hMSC from different origins. Cardiac functions Hemodynamic measurement of the cardiac performance Figure 2A demonstrates an improvement of functional parameters in case of stem cell treatment both under baseline conditions as well as after stress induction.
Figure 2. Heart functions 6 weeks after MI. Infarct size Ligation of the LAD consistently resulted in a transmural MI with its typical histologic changes including the thinning of the left ventricular free wall Fast green and extensive collagen deposition Sirius red 6 weeks after infarction. Figure 3. Infarction size 6 weeks after MI. Capillary density The capillary density was determined by CDstaining 6 weeks after myocardial infarction.
Figure 4. Capillary density 6 weeks after MI. Cardiac remodeling Postinfarct cardiac remodeling serves as an important compensatory mechanism of congestive heart failure, characterized by progressive ventricular chamber dilatation, hypertrophy, fibrosis and prolonged cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Figure 5. Fibrosis 6 weeks after MI. Figure 6. Late cardiomyocytes apoptosis. Engraftment and characterization of hMSC in infarcted murine hearts We evaluated human GAPDH expression at 3 different parts from the infarction area and identified implanted cells in the mouse tissue 6 weeks after myocardial infarction following hMSC application with selective binding human nuclei antibody HNA Figure 7A.
Figure 7. Identification of transplanted hMSC in infracted myocardium. Real time acidification of viable hMSC in vitro As the acidification is closely linked to the cellular energy metabolism, we measured the acidification rate of hMSC under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions. Figure 8. Real time acidification rate as a live cell parameter.
Figure 9. Discussion The present study for the first time systematically evaluated the cardiac regenerative capability of hMSC derived from different human origins in a SCID mouse left anterior descending LAD ligation model via intracardiac injection. Human cell differentiation potential In order to investigate the differentiation capacity of hMSC after transplantation into the infarcted heart multiple antibodies staining was performed.
Real time acidification of viable hMSC in vitro The silicon sensor chip technology allows the observation of cellular behaviour in cell cultures. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaStat 3. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank Ms. Margit Fritsche for her technical assistance. Footnotes Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
References 1. Skeletal myoblast transplantation for repair of myocardial necrosis. J Clin Invest. Regenerating functional myocardium: improved performance after skeletal myoblast transplantation. Nat Med. Transplanted cardiomyocytes survive in scar tissue and improve heart function. Transplant Proc.
Cardiomyocyte transplantation improves heart function. Ann Thorac Surg. Smooth muscle cell transplantation into myocardial scar tissue improves heart function. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology.
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