School staff are encouraged to use the restorative practices to build relationships and resolve staff issues restorative staff community , and to interact with parents restorative approach with families. First, the Restorative Practices Intervention operationalizes and expands psychology of affect theory, which is an alternative to the punitive approaches often used by schools.
The psychology of affect Higgins, explains how the Restorative Practices Intervention achieves improved behavior and increased connectedness through three psychological mechanisms: 1 the Restorative Practices Intervention maximizes positive affect through proactive practices such as restorative circles Table 1 , which are aimed at developing closer bonds and relationships among youth; 2 the Restorative Practices Intervention minimizes negative affect by providing responsive practices that ensure that offenders can take public responsibility for their behavior and reintegrate into normal community life; and 3 the Restorative Practices Intervention encourages free expression of emotion through training in practices such as affective statements and questions.
While the psychology of affect theory explains how the Restorative Practices Intervention changes interactions at the individual level, the ecological systems theory explains how these individual level changes perpetuate improvements in the peer and overall school environments. Ecological systems theory argues that individual behavior is determined by multiple causes and is sensitive to multiple influences from microsystems e.
The Restorative Practices Intervention primarily focuses on the peer and school systems at the micro- and meso-system levels, respectively Figure 2. At the student level, restorative practices e. When students have positive interactions with their peers, this improves their peer relationships and can lead to more active participation in school, which in turn promotes the positive environment of their school.
These changes in the peer and school environments can have a reciprocal positive influence on student development and that, in turn, can promote the three individual psychological mechanisms listed above. The results are continually reinforcing and reciprocal positive individual, peer and school cultures that effectively regulate and consistently build and repair social bonds, connectedness, and relationships—key mechanisms to prevent high-risk and harmful behaviors.
Staff receive typically four days of training over two school years to learn how to use restorative practices and participate in interactive exercises focused on building the skills needed to run effective circles and conferences. In addition, International Institute of Restorative Practices facilitators consult with the school monthly by phone for minutes to discuss implementation progress, solve issues, and answer questions that may arise.
Finally, groups of 8—12 staff members convene regularly typically monthly, but more frequently in some schools for participatory learning groups to review educational resources and discuss their proficiency in the 11 Essential Elements. The International Institute of Restorative Practices facilitator will meet with staff to introduce the process and online tools to assist these groups, but staff are responsible for facilitating the ongoing meetings.
After the first year of this study at the request of schools, the research team also developed several implementation tools, including sample plans, and identified implementation targets for schools e. While the research team did not have any direct contact with schools or assist with training, they did advise the implementation team from the International Institute of Restorative Practices on best practices in implementation science and assist in developing these implementation tools.
Quasi-experimental studies have shown that schools implementing the Restorative Practices Intervention achieve significant impacts on environment e. These relationships between improvement and participation remained statistically significant after accounting for relevant risk factors.
Quasi-experimental evaluations of restorative interventions have shown they can reduce conflict and develop positive relationships, both of which aid positive youth development e. To build on these studies, a randomized controlled trial is needed to examine whether the Restorative Practices Intervention influences peer relationships, school climate, and ultimately, youth developmental outcomes.
The measures selected for the study Figure 2 are guided by ecological systems theory emphasizing how a comprehensive positive youth development approach like the Restorative Practices Intervention aims to influence the school environment, peer relationships, and subsequently youth developmental outcomes and bullying victimization Bronfenbrenner, As shown in Figure 2 , ecological systems theory nests the individual youth within multiple levels of interaction.
Youth interact with peers, and they influence each other. These interactions mediate youth developmental outcomes and bullying victimization. When implemented with fidelity, comprehensive positive youth development approaches like the Restorative Practices Intervention are specifically focused on improving peer-to-peer communication and relationships as well as the school environment. Based on ecological systems theory, the research team hypothesized that if the environment is positive, adolescents will have positive developmental outcomes and experience or perpetrate fewer incidences of bullying.
Taking an intent-to-treat approach, the research team hypothesized that students in schools randomly assigned to receive the Restorative Practices Intervention would report more school connectedness, better school climate, more positive peer relationships and developmental outcomes, and less bullying victimization compared to students in control schools Hypothesis 1.
Given the challenges past evaluations have found with implementing whole school approaches, the research team also conducted analyses to test a second hypothesis that students in the intervention schools who reported experiencing more restorative practices either through the Restorative Practices Intervention or because they had specific teachers who naturally acted in a restorative manner outside of the Restorative Practices Intervention would report more positive outcomes Hypothesis 2.
Testing this hypothesis allowed the research team to examine whether restorative practices was associated with more positive outcomes, regardless of whether the whole school implementation of the Restorative Practices Intervention was successful.
Intervention and control schools were matched based on demographic, academic, and disciplinary data, and then randomized them so that seven schools received the Restorative Practices Intervention and seven did not. The intervention was implemented for two years, and the evaluation assessed the extent of implementation and changes in school connectedness, positive developmental outcomes, and bullying victimization from baseline to post two years later.
During the course of the intervention, one intervention middle school dropped out of the study because of data privacy concerns, leaving seven intervention and six control schools. Middle school students were selected because research has shown that it is critical to intervene during early adolescence before the transition to high school, when risky behaviors become more prevalent Merrell, Gueldner et al.
The survey was completed via computer in classrooms under the supervision of teachers. Most survey questions were asked about the general school environment and teacher behavior at the time of the survey, except bullying victimization questions, which asked about student experience over the past 30 days. Across the 13 middle schools, 2, participating students response rate of 83 percent were evenly split between grades 6 48 percent and 7 52 percent and were primarily ages 11 38 percent or 12 41 percent.
Gender was evenly split 51 percent male , and 92 percent of students were white Table 2. To reduce heterogeneity, the analyses only included at baseline students who were no older than 12 for sixth grade or 13 for seventh grade.
As a result, six sixth-graders, nine seventh-graders, and 38 students who did not indicate their grade were omitted, for a final sample of 2, students. Table 2 and all of the following statistics are based on this sample. Multilevel logistic analyses predicted student demographics at Year 2, student attrition at Year 2 from experimental condition, and the Year 1 values of key study variables.
The 13 schools housed grades 6—8 in the same building; five schools included grades K—5 on campus, and nine did not. Similar to the national average, 48 percent of students across the 13 schools received free and reduced lunches ranging from 24 to 68 percent at the individual campuses; U. Department of Education, Schools collectively had a 94 percent retention rate similar to the national average of 91 percent for not only a single school year rates for individual schools ranged from 85 to 99 percent of all students but also from year to year rates ranged from 90 to 99 percent for individual schools.
Average enrollment was students compared to the national middle school average of , and schools ranged in size from 91 to students U. Attendance rates at schools were slightly higher than the national average 95 percent versus 91 percent nationally and ranged from 93 to 99 percent on individual campuses. The average suspension rate was less than 5 percent U.
Out-of-school and in-school suspensions ranged from less than 1 percent on the low end to highs of 9 percent, and 21 percent, respectively. In past studies, the scales demonstrated good reliability one-year test re-test ranged from 0. Omega is a measure of internal consistency on the same metric as coefficient alpha. It has advantages over alpha in that it requires more realistic assumptions, has fewer problems with inflation due to number of items, and allows confidence intervals to be generated for a more accurate evaluation of the reliability of a scale Dunn, Baguley et al.
In the study data, coefficient omega was 0. The scale also has indicators that suggest its validity: It has been associated with measures of emotional well-being, which is consistent with other research e. Omega could not be calculated because the scale is only three items. Prior research has established the criterion-related validity of the self-report form through correlations with associated measures e.
Accordingly, exploratory structural equation modeling ESEM was followed by confirmatory factor analysis CFA to improve the fit of the modeled conceptual scales to the data. ESEM is a procedure that can estimate an SEM model with no measurement constraints on a block of indicators within the model. By varying the number of factors indicated by that block, the ESEM simultaneously maximizes the fit of the structural model including the factors and the exploratory portion of the measurement model.
All four empathy items were used. In the data, coefficient omega was 0. Communities That Care was a ten-year longitudinal study of prevention that surveyed thousands of middle school youth about risk and protective behaviors, delinquency, bullying Arthur, Hawkins et al. In addition to their face validity, these questions have been found to be positively correlated with alcohol use among middle school students Peleg-Oren, Cardenas et al.
In both the baseline and post-test surveys, students were asked 17 questions about their experience of restorative practices at school, covering the use of affective statements e. Students in the intervention schools were asked ten additional questions at post-test covering the specific use of circles, both proactively e.
Youth responded using a Likert scale from one not at all to five always. Neither confirmatory nor exploratory factor analysis yielded a clear solution for subscales within these items. Instead the first principal component was extracted from the 17 items at pre-test for all students and the 27 items at post-test for intervention students. The first component accounted for 48 percent and 51 percent, respectively, of the original variability across items.
All analyses were conducted in the most recent version of SAS software v9. All models accounted for the nested sample of students within schools by incorporating a school-level random intercept for each outcome. Data linking students to specific teachers or other staff members were unavailable to the project, so just two levels were modeled.
Initial confirmatory measurement modeling was conducted for existing scales. Where noted, exploratory measurement modeling, in which the a priori model was not reflected in the data, was used. Experimental condition was modeled as a level 2 school predictor.
The between-within method was used for calculating degrees of freedom Due to the modest level 2 sample size, no covariates associated with whole schools were included. Hypothesis 2 focused on assessing the experience of students in the Restorative Practices Intervention—assigned schools with restorative practices by school staff.
The restorative practice items in the first principal component described above was the operationalization of restorative practice experience at the student level. Relations between the principal component and the student outcomes from Hypothesis 1 were assessed.
The predictor and outcomes were both at level 1 student. Random school-level intercepts were modeled in the outcomes and student-level covariates which also included the baseline measure of the principal component. The Benjamini-Hochberg correction was applied across the set of student outcomes. Coefficient omega and its confidence interval for each scale were estimated using ci. The ci. Two-level models in M plus that would have been valid for Hypothesis 1 with the less restrictive MAR assumption resulted in computational difficulties, most likely due to the small level 2 sample size.
Hypothesis 1: Did students in the Restorative Practices Intervention schools report more school connectedness, positive developmental outcomes, and less bullying victimization than students in control schools? Detailed results are reported in Table 3. Odds ratio point estimates for bullying were 1. Covariates not shown. Only a minority of students in intervention schools experienced restorative practices to a great extent, while students in control schools experienced much more restorative practices than would be expected.
The similarity across treatment and control schools could explain the lack of significant difference between treatment and control groups in the ITT analyses. Hypothesis 2: Did the student reports of restorative practices experience predict more school connectedness, positive developmental outcomes, and less bullying victimization? Models predicting student outcomes from the self-reported restorative practices experience at follow-up showed significant and positive relations with all school climate, school connectedness, peer attachment, and social skills outcomes, as well as significant negative relations with reports of physical and cyber bullying negative relations being beneficial because higher restorative practices experience is associated with less reported bullying after the FDR correction.
These models included baseline values of the 11 outcomes, the baseline principal component, and student-level demographics. Relations with emotional bullying were not significant. Details are shown in Table 4 , including effect size estimates and their 95 percent confidence intervals. Odds ratio point estimates for a standard-deviation change in the RP predictor for bullying were 0.
There were no substantive differences in the results for Hypothesis 1. For Hypothesis 2, three findings changed significance in the sensitivity analyses: The effects of restorative practice experiences on cyberbullying, assertiveness, and empathy, significant in the primary analyses, were not significant in these analyses. The evaluation found that while the Restorative Practices Intervention did not have significant effects on students in the treatment schools, a restorative school environment is associated with more positive youth development and reductions in in bullying among middle school students.
Specifically, the evaluation found that middle-school students who received the Restorative Practices Intervention did not report more school connectedness, better school climate, more positive peer relationships and developmental outcomes, or less victimization than students in control schools did. Further, the Restorative Practices Intervention in this study delivered only a modest amount of restorative practices experiences—an amount not much different than control schools received.
Based on this evaluation, it is unclear whether the Restorative Practices Intervention as designed can impact the whole school as hypothesized. While the research team did not find evidence that the Restorative Practices Intervention was an effective comprehensive positive youth development program, they did find further evidence to support the importance of a restorative school environment for positive youth development.
These findings suggest that while the intervention itself did not create a whole-school change, restorative practices—if used consistently enough—hold promise for reducing bullying victimization by building a supportive environment through stronger bonds among leadership, staff, and students. Given the significant negative developmental impacts of bullying, the findings that school practices both support positive youth development and reduce bullying victimization are a significant advancement of prior research.
It is particularly notable that these results were found for cyberbullying victimization, which is especially difficult to address because it occurs outside of formal and controlled settings such as school. Future research is needed to identify and develop comprehensive positive youth development approaches that can reliably build a restorative school environment.
Similar to past evaluations of whole-school approaches, implementing the Restorative Practices Intervention in the middle schools was challenging. Consistent whole-school implementation of the Restorative Practices Intervention did not happen over the two years which could have explained the lack of significant findings from the intent-to-treat analysis.
This could be due to the fact that not all teachers were actively participating in the Restorative Practices Intervention or were not implementing the Restorative Practices Intervention at the recommended levels i. In addition, whole-school approaches involve many different actors administration, staff, students , and turnover among these actors means there is a strong need for implementation support, including tools and coaching.
Coaching was provided monthly, which may not be sufficient for such an intensive intervention with such a broad scope. The fact that other implementation tools, such as sample plans and identified implementation targets, were not available to intervention schools at the start of the study could also have weakened implementation.
Similarly, while the International Institute of Restorative Practices identified implementation targets e. The International Institute of Restorative Practices offers tailored leadership training for administrators and staff championing the Restorative Practices Intervention at schools to teach them how to be engaging, collaborative, and effective at using restorative practices in their organizational and implementation strategies.
In addition to sufficient implementation support, the International Institute of Restorative Practices could experiment with strategies to anticipate and overcome structural barriers to implementation such as leadership engagement, staffing levels and staff turnover, and school schedules and other competing demands on administrative and teaching staff.
More research is needed to identify implementation best practices for these whole-school and comprehensive positive youth development approaches. The Comprehensive Framework for Implementation Research provides a structured list of constructs associated with effective intervention of health innovations, and could be useful in systematically assessing potential barriers and facilitators in future comprehensive positive youth development research and by schools that are preparing for implementing a comprehensive positive youth development approach like the Restorative Practices Intervention.
There were three main limitations to this study. First, this study relied on self-reported data from students. To address this limitation, self-report data was collected used reliable and valid measures where available. Second, this study collected limited measures of intervention.
Since many of the mechanisms for the intervention were impromptu e. However, implementation data was collected directly from students. Since students were the targets of the intervention, assessing their experiences of restorative practices provided an important perspective on whether the intervention was implemented to scale. Finally, bullying victimization was measured by three single items. The study assessed whether students had been bullied in the past 30 days, not whether they witnessed bullying or perpetrated bullying.
While limited, these three items have been used in one of the largest and longest running research study on adolescents i. Future research could benefit from additional observational measures of both implementation and outcomes. Measures should take into account the interactional nature of the intervention and capture implementation at the classroom level, which would allow for a more nuanced understanding of how the intervention was diffused across the school.
Among the bullying measures, it is unsurprising that cyber-bullying was the most influenced by the restoration of the three-level response as it had the lowest frequency of endorsement of the highest response, meaning the logistic threshold would be less stably estimated. Both versions of the subscale have comparable and high internal consistency, so there is no empirical reason in the current analyses to place greater weight on one finding than the other. That said, the changes made to the SSIS-RS were based on measurement modeling independent of the current paper and the modified version was our a priori choice for the current analyses.
Additional research should also assess whether whole-school approaches are practical or whether an alternative model is better suited to diffusing restorative practices into schools e. Research should also determine the length of time it takes for these interventions to become integrated into the school environment e.
Given the interactional nature of the intervention, future studies should also consider more creative ways of capturing dose e. Since teachers in the control schools were already using restorative practices without a specific intervention framework, it will be important for the International Institute of Restorative Practices to clarify what makes the Restorative Practices Intervention unique and a value added above and beyond what teachers are already doing.
Adolescent problem behavior is complex and likely requires comprehensive, multi-level approaches that address a wide range of youth development factors. However, these approaches have not been studied in rigorous trials. This study is the first randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive, multi-level intervention—the Restorative Practices Intervention—and advances the prior quasi-experimental research in this area, as well as filling a gap in research on positive youth development approaches for middle schoolers.
The two-year, whole-school intervention studied here did not yield significant changes in the schools participating in the Restorative Practices Intervention. The Restorative Practices Intervention implementation was modest, and the results were not noticeably different from those of control schools.
These findings have implications for the understanding of adolescence, namely that a restorative environment can enhance youth development and reduce bullying. While the specific Restorative Practices Intervention did not yield differential outcomes, the findings suggest that interventions which are able to successfully create a restorative environment maybe most effective because they address the complex interaction of risk factors which underlie adolescence.
She specializes in community-based research focused on the implementation and evaluation of prevention and health promotion programs in the areas of public health, positive youth development, substance abuse, and mental health. His major research interests include developing and testing capacity-building approaches to improve the implementation of evidence-based programs in community-based settings. Her major research interests include innovative survey methodologies and supporting and evaluating implementation of behavioral health prevention and treatment services.
Patrick S. His major research area is quantitative research methods, focusing on latent variable and longitudinal modeling as applied to child development and health risk behaviors. Her major research interests include developing and testing approaches to improve implementation of programs and strategies in school settings.
His major interests include large-scale data applications for health care quality and outcomes research. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Publisher's Disclaimer: This Author Accepted Manuscript is a PDF file of an unedited peer-reviewed manuscript that has been accepted for publication but has not been copyedited or corrected.
The official version of record that is published in the journal is kept up to date and so may therefore differ from this version. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Youth Adolesc. Author manuscript; available in PMC May 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Youth Adolesc. Abstract This study fills a gap in research on multi-level school-based approaches to promoting positive youth development and reducing bullying, in particular cyberbullying, among middle school youth. Introduction Some schools are safe and supportive environments for staff and students; others are steeped in bullying and poor relationships among teachers and students.
Table 1. Essential practices Sample indicators of proficiency in practice 1. Restorative questions Reflect standard restorative questions What harm has been done? How has it impacted you? What needs to happen to make things right?
Small impromptu conferences Use to resolve low-level incidents between 2 people; take place as soon as possible after the incident has occurred; use the standard set of restorative questions; use affective statements; ask students to conduct a specific activity to repair harm from the incident 4.
Restorative conferences Use in response to serious incidents or a cumulative pattern of repeated less serious incidents; use scripted approach and trained facilitator; use standard set of restorative questions and affective statements 7.
Fair process Allow students to provide input into decisions affecting them; explain the reasoning behind decisions to the students affected; clarify expectations so students understand implications of the decision, specific expectations for carrying out the decision, and consequences for not meeting expectations 8. Restorative staff community Use restorative practices to resolve staff conflicts and proactive circles to build sense of community among staff Eczema especially favored a binary options trading blog siege of votes each.
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